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Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit


Iron homeostasis in health and disease

Matthias Hentze and Martina Muckenthaler
Matthias Hentze and Martina Muckenthaler

Martina Muckenthaler and Matthias W. Hentze

Our research interest

As an essential nutrient and a potential toxin, iron poses an exquisite regulatory problem in biology and medicine. Disturbances of the delicate balancing systems for systemic and/or local iron homeostasis are emerging as underlying causes of common hematological, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases.

Our research aims to understand the physiological control of cellular and systemic iron metabolism and its disturbances in human disease



Iron is essential for fundamental metabolic processes in cells and organisms. Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis evolved to maintain a plasma iron concentration that secures adequate supplies while preventing organ iron overload.

The homeostatic system must react to signals from pathways that consume iron (e.g. the erythropoiesis) and send signals to cells that supply iron (e.g. duodenal enterocytes, which absorb iron from the diet; macrophages which recycle iron from senescent erythrocytes, and hepatocytes which are the major iron stores). The small hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin (Hamp, LEAP1) orchestrates these iron fluxes and controls the amount of available extracellular iron by interacting with the iron exporter ferroportin: binding of hepcidin induces ferroportin internalization and degradation, thus reducing the levels of iron in circulation.



Our work is based on modern “omics” analyses of cultured cells, animal models (mostly mouse) and clinical samples. Hypotheses generated in this way are then pursued for a more detailed understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in iron homeostasis and the identification of novel regulators of iron metabolism. We then aim to translate new results into understanding human disease and to contribute to clinical patient management.


Specifically, our current and future work will focus on four themes:


1. The hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system.
2. The role of iron in atherosclerosis.
3. Iron management in the central nervous system.
4. Iron in the tumor microenvironment.



Important publications

NOTCH1 mutation, TP53 alteration and myeloid antigen expression predict outcome heterogeneity in children with first relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Hof J, Kox C, Groeneveld-Krentz S, Bandapalli OR, Karawajew L, Schedel K, Kunz JB, Eckert C, Ludwig WD, Ratei R, Rhein P, Henze G, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE, von Stackelberg A, Kirschner-Schwabe R.
Haematologica. 2017 Jul;102(7):e249-e252. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2016.157792. Epub 2017 Mar 30.PMID:28360149


Imatinib and spironolactone suppress hepcidin expression.
Mleczko-Sanecka K, da Silva AR, Call D, Neves J, Schmeer N, Damm G, Seehofer D, Muckenthaler MU.
Haematologica. 2017 Jul;102(7):1173-1184. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2016.162917. Epub 2017 Apr 6.PMID:28385785


Acute loss of the hepatic endo-lysosomal system in vivo causes compensatory changes in iron homeostasis.
Metzendorf C, Zeigerer A, Seifert S, Sparla R, Najafi B, Canonne-Hergaux F, Zerial M, Muckenthaler MU.
Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 22;7(1):4023. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02898-4.PMID:28642463


Disruption of the Hepcidin/Ferroportin Regulatory System Causes Pulmonary Iron Overload and Restrictive Lung Disease.
Neves J, Leitz D, Kraut S, Brandenberger C, Agrawal R, Weissmann N, Mühlfeld C, Mall MA, Altamura S, Muckenthaler MU.
EBioMedicine. 2017 Jun;20:230-239. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.04.036. Epub 2017 Apr 29.PMID:28499927


Cellular citrate levels establish a regulatory link between energy metabolism and the hepatic iron hormone hepcidin.
da Silva AR, Neves J, Mleczko-Sanecka K, Tandon A, Sauer SW, Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2017 Jun 5. doi: 10.1007/s00109-017-1551-3. PMID: 28585096


Cdk6 contributes to cytoskeletal stability in erythroid cells.
Uras IZ, Scheicher RM, Kollmann K, Glösmann M, Prchal-Murphy M, Tigan AS, Fux DA, Altamura S, Neves J, Muckenthaler MU, Bennett KL, Kubicek S, Hinds PW, von Lindern M, Sexl V.
Haematologica. 2017 Jun;102(6):995-1005. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2016.159947. Epub 2017 Mar 2.


Dicarbonyls and Advanced Glycation End-Products in the Development of Diabetic Complications and Targets for Intervention.
Brings S, Fleming T, Freichel M, Muckenthaler MU, Herzig S, Nawroth PP.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 5;18(5). pii: E984. doi: 10.3390/ijms18050984. Review.PMID:28475116


Pathophysiological consequences and benefits of HFE mutations: 20 years of research.
Hollerer I, Bachmann A, Muckenthaler MU.
Haematologica. 2017 May;102(5):809-817. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2016.160432. Epub 2017 Mar 9. Review.PMID:28280078


Methylglyoxal and Advanced Glycation End Products in Patients with Diabetes - What We Know so Far and the Missing Links.
Groener JB, Oikonomou D, Cheko R, Kender Z, Zemva J, Kihm L, Muckenthaler M, Peters V, Fleming T, Kopf S, Nawroth PP.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017 Apr 13. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-106443.


Identification of a genetically defined ultra-high-risk group in relapsed pediatric T-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Richter-Pechańska P, Kunz JB, Hof J, Zimmermann M, Rausch T, Bandapalli OR, Orlova E, Scapinello G, Sagi JC, Stanulla M, Schrappe M, Cario G, Kirschner-Schwabe R, Eckert C, Benes V, Korbel JO, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE.
Blood Cancer J. 2017 Feb 3;7(2):e523. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2017.3.
PMID: 28157215


A Red Carpet for Iron Metabolism.
Muckenthaler MU, Rivella S, Hentze MW, Galy B.
Cell. 2017 Jan 26;168(3):344-361. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.034. Review. PMID: 28129536


Modelling Systemic Iron Regulation during Dietary Iron Overload and Acute Inflammation: Role of Hepcidin-Independent Mechanisms.
Enculescu M, Metzendorf C, Sparla R, Hahnel M, Bode J, Muckenthaler MU, Legewie S.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2017 Jan 9;13(1):e1005322. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005322.
PMID: 28068331



Important publications 2016 and earlier

In vivo nanoparticle imaging of innate immune cells can serve as a marker of disease severity in a model of multiple sclerosis.
Kirschbaum K, Sonner JK, Zeller MW, Deumelandt K, Bode J, Sharma R, Krüwel T, Fischer M, Hoffmann A, Costa da Silva M, Muckenthaler MU, Wick W, Tews B, Chen JW, Heiland S, Bendszus M, Platten M, Breckwoldt MO.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Nov 15;113(46):13227-13232.
PMID: 27799546


Orphan nuclear receptor SHP regulates iron metabolism through inhibition of BMP6-mediated hepcidin expression.
Kim DK, Kim YH, Jung YS, Kim KS, Jeong JH, Lee YS, Yuk JM, Oh BC, Choy HE, Dooley S, Muckenthaler MU, Lee CH, Choi HS.
Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 30;6:34630. doi: 10.1038/srep34630.
PMID: 27688041


CRLF2 over-expression is a poor prognostic marker in children with high risk T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Palmi C, Savino AM, Silvestri D, Bronzini I, Cario G, Paganin M, Buldini B, Galbiati M, Muckenthaler MU, Bugarin C, Mina PD, Nagel S, Barisone E, Casale F, Locatelli F, Nigro LL, Micalizzi C, Parasole R, Pession A, Putti MC, Santoro N, Testi AM, Ziino O, Kulozik AE, Zimmermann M, Schrappe M, Villa A, Gaipa G, Basso G, Biondi A, Valsecchi MG, Stanulla M, Conter V, Kronnie GT, Cazzaniga G.
Oncotarget. 2016 Jul 15. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.10610.


Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Activates Hepcidin mRNA Expression in Hepatocytes.
Chen S, Feng T, Vujić Spasić M, Altamura S, Breitkopf-Heinlein K, Altenöder J, Weiss TS, Dooley S,
Muckenthaler MU.
J Biol Chem. 2016 Jun 17;291(25):13160-74. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.691543. Epub 2016 Apr 27.


miR-20a regulates expression of the iron exporter ferroportin in lung cancer.
Babu KR, Muckenthaler MU.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2016 Mar;94(3):347-59. doi: 10.1007/s00109-015-1362-3. Epub 2015 Nov 12


Mice with hepcidin-resistant ferroportin accumulate iron in the retina.
Theurl M, Song D, Clark E, Sterling J, Grieco S, Altamura S, Galy B, Hentze M, Muckenthaler MU, Dunaief JL.
FASEB J. 2016 Feb;30(2):813-23. doi: 10.1096/fj.15-276758. Epub 2015 Oct 27. PMID: 26506980


Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.
Vinchi F, Costa da Silva M, Ingoglia G, Petrillo S, Brinkman N, Zuercher A, Cerwenka A, Tolosano E, Muckenthaler MU.
Blood. 2016 Jan 28;127(4):473-86. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-08-663245. Epub 2015 Dec 16.


Efficacy and safety of deferasirox in non-thalassemic patients with elevated ferritin levels after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Jaekel N, Lieder K, Albrecht S, Leismann O, Hubert K, Bug G, Kröger N, Platzbecker U, Stadler M, de Haas K, Altamura S, Muckenthaler MU, Niederwieser D, Al-Ali HK.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016 Jan;51(1):89-95. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2015.204. Epub 2015 Sep 14.


Pediatric T-lymphoblastic leukemia evolves into relapse by clonal selection, acquisition of mutations and promoter hypomethylation.
Kunz JB, Rausch T, Bandapalli OR, Eilers J, Pechanska P, Schuessele S, Assenov Y, Stütz AM, Kirschner-Schwabe R, Hof J, Eckert C, von Stackelberg A, Schrappe M, Stanulla M, Koehler R, Avigad S, Elitzur S, Handgretinger R, Benes V, Weischenfeldt J, Korbel JO, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE.
Haematologica. 2015 Aug 20. pii: haematol.2015.129692. PMID: 26294725


Iron Regulatory Proteins Mediate Host Resistance to Salmonella Infection.
Nairz M, Ferring-Appel D, Casarrubea D, Sonnweber T, Viatte L, Schroll A, Haschka D, Fang FC, Hentze MW, Weiss G, Galy B.
Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Aug 12;18(2):254-61. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2015.06.017.
Epub 2015 Jul 16. PMID: 26190773


Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E.
Díaz V, Peinado AB, Barba-Moreno L, Altamura S, Butragueño J, González-Gross M, Alteheld B, Stehle P, Zapico AG, Muckenthaler MU, Gassmann M.
Physiol Rep. 2015 Aug;3(8). pii: e12475. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12475.
PMID: 26243212


Adaptation of iron requirement to hypoxic conditions at high altitude.
Gassmann M, Muckenthaler MU.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Jul 16:jap.00248.2015. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00248.2015. PMID: 26183475


Lymphocyte gene expression signatures from patients and mouse models of hereditary hemochromatosis reveal a function of HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation and differentiation in vivo.
Costa M, Cruz E, Oliveira S, Benes V, Ivacevic T, Silva MJ, Vieira I, Dias F, Fonseca S, Gonçalves M, Lima M, Leitão C, Muckenthaler MU, Pinto J, Porto G.
PLoS One. 2015 Apr 16;10(4):e0124246. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124246. eCollection 2015. PMID: 25880808


A novel inflammatory pathway mediating rapid hepcidin-independent hypoferremia.
Guida C, Altamura S, Klein FA, Galy B, Boutros M, Ulmer AJ, Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU.
Blood. 2015 Apr 2;125(14):2265-75. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-08-595256. Epub 2015 Feb 6.


Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.
Lenzhofer M, Schroedl F, Trost A, Kaser-Eichberger A, Wiedemann H, Strohmaier C, Hohensinn M, Strasser M, Muckenthaler MU Grabner G, Aigner E, Reitsamer HA.
Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Apr;92(4 Suppl 1):S40-7. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000544. PMID:25756341


Opens external link in new windowIron regulatory protein 1 sustains mitochondrial iron loading and function in frataxin deficiency.
Martelli A, Schmucker S, Reutenauer L, Mathieu JR, Peyssonnaux C, Karim Z, Puy H, Galy B, Hentze MW, Puccio H.
Cell Metab. 2015 Feb 3;21(2):311-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.01.010.


How mutant HFE causes hereditary hemochromatosis.
Muckenthaler MU.
Blood. 2014 Aug 21;124(8):1212-3. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-07-581744. PMID:25147378


Opens external link in new windowResistance of Ferroportin to Hepcidin Binding causes Exocrine Pancreatic Failure and Fatal Iron Overload.
Altamura S, Kessler R, Gröne HJ, Gretz N, Hentze MW, Galy B, Muckenthaler MU.Cell Metab. 2014 Aug 5;20(2):359-67. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.007.


Opens external link in new windowNovel activating mutations lacking cysteine in type I cytokine receptors in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Shochat C1, Tal N, Gryshkova V, Birger Y, Bandapalli OR, Cazzaniga G, Gershman N, Kulozik AE, Biondi A, Mansour MR, Twizere JC, Muckenthaler MU, Ben-Tal N, Constantinescu SN, Bercovich D, Izraeli S.
Blood. 2014 Jul 3;124(1):106-10.   


Opens external link in new windowAtherogenesis and iron: from epidemiology to cellular level.
Vinchi F, Muckenthaler MU, Da Silva MC, Balla G, Balla J, Jeney V.
Front Pharmacol. 2014 May 5;5:94. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00094. eCollection 2014. Review.  


Opens external link in new windowIron regulatory protein-1 protects against mitoferrin-1-deficient porphyria
Chung J, Anderson SA, Gwynn B, Deck KM, Chen MJ, Langer NB, Shaw GC, Huston NC, Boyer LF, Datta S, Paradkar PN, Li L, Wei Z, Lambert AJ, Sahr K, Wittig JG, Chen W, Lu W, Galy B, Schlaeger TM, Hentze MW, Ward DM, Kaplan J, Eisenstein RS, Peters LL, Paw BH.
J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 14;289(11):7835-43. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.547778. Epub 2014 Feb 7. Erratum in: J Biol Chem. 2014 May 16;289(20):13707. PMID:24509859


Opens external link in new windowUnbiased RNAi screen for hepcidin regulators links hepcidin suppression to the proliferative Ras/RAF and the nutrient-dependent mTOR signaling pathways.
Mleczko-Sanecka, K., F. Roche, A.R. da Silva, D. Call, F. D’Allesio, A. Ragab, P.E. Lapinski, R. Ummanni, U. Korf, C. Oakes, G. Damm, L.A. D’Alessandro, U. Klingmüller, P.D. King, M. Boutros, M.W. Hentze and M.U. Muckenthaler. 
Blood. 2014 Mar 6;123(10):1574-85. doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-07-515957. Epub 2014 Jan 2. 


Opens external link in new windowComparison of different IRT-PAP protocols to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis in three central European populations.
Sommerburg O, Krulisova V, Hammermann J, Lindner M, Stahl M, Muckenthaler M, Kohlmueller D, Happich M, Kulozik AE, Votava F, Balascakova M, Skalicka V, Stopsack M, Gahr M, Macek M Jr, Mall MA, Hoffmann GF.
J Cyst Fibros. 2014 Jan;13(1):15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2013.06.003. Epub 2013 Jul 25.  


Opens external link in new windowA multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.
Casanovas G, Banerji A, d'Alessio F, Muckenthaler MU, Legewie S.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2014 Jan;10(1):e1003421. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003421. Epub 2014 Jan 2.


Opens external link in new windowThe activating STAT5B N642H mutation is a common abnormality in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and confers a higher risk of relapse.
Bandapalli OR, Schuessele S, Kunz JB, Rausch T, Stütz AM, Tal N, Geron I, Gershman N, Izraeli S, Eilers J, Vaezipour N, Kirschner-Schwabe R, Hof J, von Stackelberg A, Schrappe M, Stanulla M, Zimmermann M, Koehler R, Avigad S, Handgretinger R, Frismantas V, Bourquin JP, Bornhauser B, Korbel JO, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE.
Haematologica. 2014 Jun 27. pii: haematol.2014.104992.


Opens external link in new windowHigh CD45 surface expression determines relapse risk in children with precursor B-cell and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol.
Cario G1, Rhein P, Mitlöhner R, Zimmermann M, Bandapalli OR, Romey R, Moericke A, Ludwig WD, Ratei R, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE, Schrappe M, Stanulla M, Karawajew L.
Haematologica. 2014 Jan;99(1):103-10. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2013.090225. Epub 2013 Aug 2.


Opens external link in new windowPathologies at the nexus of blood coagulation and inflammation: thrombin in hemostasis, cancer and beyond.
Danckwardt, S., M.W. Hentze and A.E. Kulozik. 
J Mol Med (Berl). 2013 Nov;91(11):1257-71. doi: 10.1007/s00109-013-1074-5. Epub 2013 Aug 17.

Opens external link in new windowThe RNA-binding protein repertoire of embryonic stem cells.
Kwon, S.C., H. Yi, K. Eichelbaum, S. Föhr, B. Fischer, K.T. You, A. Castello, J. Krijgsveld, M.W. Hentze and V.N. Kim. 
Nature Struc. Mol Biol. 2013 Sep;20(9):1122-30. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2638. Epub 2013 Aug 4.

Opens external link in new windowComputerized image analysis of iron-stained macrophages.
Benesova K, Schaefer SM, Mall MA, Muckenthaler MU
Ann Hematol 2013 Sep;92(9):1195-9. doi: 10.1007/s00277-013-1740-2. Epub 2013 Apr 17

Opens external link in new windowMycn and hdac2 cooperate to repress mir-183 signaling in neuroblastoma
Lodrini M, Oehme I, Schroeder C, Milde T, Schier MC, Kopp-Schneider A, Schulte JH, Fischer M, De Preter K, Pattyn F, Castoldi M, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE, Westermann F, Witt O, Deubzer HE
Nucleic Acids Res 2013 Jul; 41:6018-6033


Opens external link in new windowNotch1 activation clinically antagonizes the unfavorable effect of pten inactivation in bfm-treated children with precursor t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Bandapalli OR, Zimmermann M, Kox C, Stanulla M, Schrappe M, Ludwig WD, Koehler R, Muckenthaler MU, Kulozik AE
Haematologica 2013 Jun;98:928-936


Opens external link in new windowIron refractory iron deficiency anemia.
De Falco L, Sanchez M, Silvestri L, Kannengiesser C, Muckenthaler MU, Iolascon A, Gouya L, Camaschella C, Beaumont C
Haematologica 2013 Jun;98:845-853


Opens external link in new windowNitric oxide-mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in salmonella infection.
Nairz M, Schleicher U, Schroll A, Sonnweber T, Theurl I, Ludwiczek S, Talasz H, Brandacher G, Moser PL, Muckenthaler MU, Fang FC, Bogdan C, Weiss G
J Exp Med. 2013 May 6;210(5):855-73. doi: 10.1084/jem.20121946. Epub 2013 Apr 29


Opens external link in new windowIron regulatory proteins control a mucosal block to intestinal iron absorption.
Galy, B., D. Ferring-Appel, C. Becker, N. Gretz, H.-J. Gröne, K. Schümann and M.W. Hentze. 
Cell Rep. 2013 Mar 28;3(3):844-57. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.02.026. Epub 2013 Mar 21.


Opens external link in new windowThe murine growth differentiation factor 15 is not essential for systemic iron homeostasis in phlebotomized mice
Casanovas G, Spasic MV, Casu C, Rivella S, Strelau J, Unsicker K, Muckenthaler MU.
Haematologica. 2013 Mar;98(3):444-7. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2012.069807. Epub 2012 Sep 14


Opens external link in new windowNovel mutations in the ferritin-l iron-responsive element that only mildly impair irp binding cause hereditary hyperferritinaemia cataract syndrome.
Luscieti S, Tolle G, Aranda J, Campos CB, Risse F, Moran E, Muckenthaler MU, Sanchez M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2013 Feb 19;8:30


Opens external link in new windowSmad6 and smad7 are co-regulated with hepcidin in mouse models of iron overload.
Vujic Spasic M, Sparla R, Mleczko-Sanecka K, Migas MC, Breitkopf-Heinlein K, Dooley S, Vaulont S, Fleming RE, Muckenthaler MU
Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Jan;1832:76-84


Opens external link in new windowPegylated interferon-α induced hypoferremia is associated with the immediate response to treatment in hepatitis C.
Ryan JD, Altamura S, Devitt E, Mullins S, Lawless MW, Muckenthaler MU, Crowe J.
Hepatology. 2012 Aug;56(2):492-500. doi: 10.1002/hep.25666. Epub 2012 Jun 11


Opens external link in new windowHfe deficiency impairs pulmonary neutrophil recruitment in response to inflammation.
Benesova K, Vujić Spasić M, Schaefer SM, Stolte J, Baehr-Ivacevic T, Waldow K, Zhou Z, Klingmueller U, Benes V, Mall MA, Muckenthaler MU.
PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39363. Epub 2012 Jun 21


Opens external link in new windowThe hemochromatosis proteins HFE, TfR2, and HJV form a membrane-associated protein complex for hepcidin regulation.
D'Alessio F, Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU.
J Hepatol. 2012 Jun 21.


Opens external link in new windowRegulation of iron homeostasis by microRNAs.
Castoldi M, Muckenthaler MU.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Jun 9.


Opens external link in new windowQuantitative magnetic analysis reveals ferritin-like iron as the most predominant iron-containing species in the murine Hfe-haemochromatosis.
Gutiérrez L, Vujić Spasić M, Muckenthaler MU, Lázaro FJ.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Jul;1822(7):1147-53. Epub 2012 Mar 20.


Opens external link in new windowIron regulatory protein-1 and -2: transcriptome-wide definition of binding mRNAs and shaping of the cellular proteome by IRPs.
Sanchez, M., B. Galy, B. Schwanhaeusser, J. Blake, T. Bähr-Ivacevic, V. Benes, M. Selbach, M.U. Muckenthaler and M.W. Hentze.
Blood 118: e168-79, Nov 2011 


Opens external link in new windowGrowth differentiation factor 15 in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type II.
Casanovas G, Swinkels DW, Altamura S, Schwarz K, Laarakkers CM, Gross HJ, Wiesneth M, Heimpel H, Muckenthaler MU.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2011 Aug;89(8):811-6


Opens external link in new windowThe liver-specific microRNA miR-122 controls systemic iron homeostasis in mice.
Castoldi M, Vujić Spasić M, Altamura S, Elmén J, Lindow M, Kiss J, Stolte J, Sparla R, D'Alessandro LA, Klingmüller U, Fleming RE, Longerich T, Gröne HJ, Benes V, Kauppinen S, Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU.
J Clin Invest. 2011 Apr 1;121(4):1386-96


Opens external link in new windowSystems analysis of iron metabolism: the network of iron pools and fluxes. 
Lopes TJ, Luganskaja T, Vujić Spasić M, Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU, Schümann K, Reich JG 
BMC Syst Biol. 2010 Aug 13;4:112


Opens external link in new windowTwo to tango: regulation of mammalian iron metabolism
Hentze, M.W., M.U. Muckenthaler, B. Galy and C. Camaschella. 
Cell 142, 24-38, 2010


Opens external link in new windowThe IronChip evaluation package: a package of perl modules for robust analysis of custom microarrays. 
Vainshtein, Y., M. Sanchez, A. Brazma, M.W. Hentze, T. Dandekar and M.U. Muckenthaler. 
BMC Bioinf. 11, 112, 2010


Opens external link in new windowSMAD7 controls iron metabolism as a potent inhibitor of hepcidin expression
Mleczko-Sanecka, K., G. Casanovas, A. Ragab, K. Breitkopf, M. Boutros, S. Dooley, M.W. Hentze and M.U. Muckenthaler. 
 115, 2657-2665, 2010 


Opens external link in new windowBone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive elements located in the proximal and distal hepcidin promoter are critical for its response to HJV/BMP/SMAD
Casanovas G, Mleczko-Sanecka K, Altamura S, Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU. 
J Mol Med
. 2009 Feb; 87, 471-480


Opens external link in new windowHfe acts in hepatocytes to prevent hemochromatosis
Maja Vujić Spasić, Judit Kiss, Thomas Herrmann, Bruno Galy, Stefanie Martinache, Jens Stolte, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Wolfgang Stremmel, Matthias W. Hentze and Martina U. Muckenthaler
Cell Metabolism 2008 Feb;7(2):173-8


Opens external link in new windowCa2+ channel blockers reverse iron overload by a novel mechanism via divalent metal transporter (DMT)-1.
Ludwiczek, S., I. Theurl, M. U. Muckenthaler, M. Jakab, S. Mair, M. Theurl, M. Paulmichl, M.W. Hentze, M. Ritter and G. Weiss. 
Nature Medicine 2007 Apr;13(4):448-54


 Opens external link in new windowSTAT-3 mediates hepatic hepcidin expression and its inflammatory stimulation
Verga Falzacappa, M.V., Vujic Spasic, M., Hess, R., Stolte, J., Hentze, M.W. and Muckenthaler, M.U. 
 2007 Jan 1;109(1):353-8


 Opens external link in new windowPhysiologic systemic iron metabolism in mice deficient for duodenal Hfe
Vujic Spasic, M., Kiss, J., Herrmann, T., Hess, R., Stolte, J., Galy, B., Rathkolb, B., Wolf, E., Stremmel, W., Hentze, M.W. and Muckenthaler, M.U. 
 2007 May 15;109(10):4511-7. Epub 2007 Jan 30


Opens external link in new windowPrevious publications


Opens external link in new windowResearch group's MMPU link to EMBL web page



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