Rapid antigen tests for the diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2 infection

Welcome! On this webpage we try to summarize the results of manufacturer independent evaluations of antigen detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) for SARS-CoV-2.

Background

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous Ag-RDTs have appeared on the market. On their homepage, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) provides a list of Ag-RDTs that fulfill certain minimum requirements. These requirements were jointly determined by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) and Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) to include a sensitivity of >70% and a specificity >97% (Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, 2021).

Manufacturer independent evaluations are important to provide an objective assessment of a test’s accuracy. Thus far only evaluations by the tests’ manufacturers themselves are summarized. Therefore, on this webpage we try to give an overview on the data published by manufacturer independent researchers. Using the linked calculator, it is also possible to convert the shown sensitivity and specificity into the concrete amount of true and false test results.

We are aware that some of the studies presented below differ widely in their methods. Thus, we advise especially for Ag-RDTs that have only been evaluated by a small amount of studies to judge their sensitivity not only based on clinical accuracy below, but also to take their limit of detection as found in analytical studies into consideration.

Author Study location QUADAS Independent Sample condition Sample type Sample size Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI)
AAZ, COVID-VIRO®
Schwob, J.M., et al. Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 248 84.1% (95% CI 76.9-89.7) 100% (95% CI 97.1*-100*)
                 
Abbott, BinaxNOW™
Shaikh, N., et al. USA intermediate concern yes fresh AN 199 85.0% (95% CI 70.0-94.0) 91.0% (95% CI 86-95)
Pollock, N.R., et al. USA low concern yes fresh AN 2308 78.1% (95% CI 77.4-72.2) 99.4% (95% CI 99.0-99.7)
Pilarowski, G., et al. USA low concern no fresh AN 878 57.7% (95% CI 36.9*-76.7*) 100%* (95% CI 99.6*-100*)
James, A. E., et al. USA low concern yes fresh AN 2339 56.5% (95% CI 48.7-64.5) 99.9% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Okoye, N.C., et al. USA intermediate concern unclear fresh MT 2645 53.3% (95% CI 39.1-67.1) 100% (95% CI 99.9-100)
                 
Abbott, Panbio™ (NP sampling)
Domínguez Fernández, M., et al. Spain intermediate concern unclear fresh unclear 30 95.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Alemany, A., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked NP 919 93.4% (95% CI 91.5-95.0) 100% (95% CI 95.8-100)
FINDdx Germany low concern yes fresh NP 281 90.9% (95% CI 78.8-96.4) 99.2% (95% CI 97.0-99.8)
Merino-Amador, P., et al. Spain low concern no fresh NP 958 90.5% (95% CI 87.5-93.6) 98.8% (95% CI 98.0-99.7)
Krüger, L.J., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh NP 1034 87.5% (95% CI 79.8-92.5) 99.9% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Schwob, J.M., et al. Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 271 86.1% (95% CI 78.6-91.7) 100% (95% CI 97.6*-100*)
Stokes, W., et al. Canada low concern yes fresh NP 1641 86.1% (95% CI 81.3-90.0) 99.9% (95% CI 99.5-100)
Berger, A., et al. Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 535 85.5% (95% CI 78.0-91.2) 100% (95% CI 99.1-100)
Faíco-Filho, K.S., et al. Brazil low concern no fresh NP 127 84.0% (95% CI 75.0-93.8) 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-98.8)
Jääskeläinen, A.E., et al. Finland high concern yes banked NP 190 83.0% (95% CI 76.1-88.1) 100% (not provided)
Eleftheriou, I., et al. Greece low concern yes fresh NP 744 82.35% (95% CI 71.9-92.8) 100% (not provided)
Abdulrahman, A., et al. Bahrain intermediate concern yes fresh AN 4183 82.1% (95% CI 79.2-84.8) 99.1% (95% CI 98.8-99.4)
Gremmels, H., et al. Netherlands intermediate concern yes fresh NP 208 81.0% (95% CI 69.0-89.9) 100% (95% CI 97.5-100)
Ngo Nsoga, M.T., et al. Switzerland intermediate concern yes fresh OP 402 81.0% (95% CI 74.2-86.6) 99.1% (95% CI 96.9-99.9)
Yin, N., et al. Belgium low concern no banked NP 101 80.8% (95% CI 68.1-89.2) not provided
Albert, E., et al. Spain low concern no fresh NP 412 79.6% (95% CI 67.0-88.8) 100% (95% CI 98.7-100)
Alemany, A., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked MT 487 79.5% (95% CI 71.0-86.4) 98.7% (95% CI 96.9-99.6)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 23 76.9% (95% CI 46.2-95.0) 100% (not provided)
Fenollar, F., et al. France low concern yes fresh NP 341 75.5% (95% CI 69.5-81.5) 94.9% (95% CI 91.2-98.6)
Reza, S., et al. Belgium intermediate concern no fresh NP 401 75.0% (95% CI 68.9-80.4) 100% (95% CI 97.8-100)
Linares, M., et al. Spain unclear yes fresh NP 255 73.3% (95% CI 62.2-83.8) 100% (95% CI 98.1*-100*)
Gremmels, H., et al. Netherlands intermediate concern yes fresh NP 1367 72.6% (95% CI 64.5-79.9) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Halfon, P. et al. France intermediate concern yes unclear NP 200 72.0% (95% CI 62.0-81.0) 99.0% (95% CI 95.0-100)
Nordgren, J., et al. Sweden intermediate concern no banked NP 286 71.8% (95% CI 64.0-78.7) 100% (95% CI 97.2-100)
Bulilete, O., et al. Spain low concern yes fresh NP 1362* 71.4% (95% CI 63.2*-78.7) 99.8% (95% CI 99.4-99.9)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. Netherlands high concern yes banked NP 80 70.0% (95% CI 53.3-82.9) not provided
Akingba, O.L., et al. Southafrica unclear yes fresh NP 677 69.2% (95% CI 61.4-75.8) 99.0% (95% CI 98.8-99.2)
Del Vecchio, C., et al. Italy low concern yes fresh unclear 1441 68.9% (95% CI 55.7-80.1) 99.9% (95% CI 99.6-100)
Favresse, J., et al. Belgium intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 67.7% (95% CI 57.4-76.9) 100% (95% CI 96.1-100)
Drevinek, P., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 591 66.4% (95% CI 59.9-72.2) 100% (95% CI 99.0-100)
L’Huillier, A.G., et al. Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 822 66.0% (95% CI 57.0-74.0) 100% (95% CI 100-100)
Ferté, T., et al. France low concern yes unclear NP 695 63.5% (95% CI 49.0-76.4) 100% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Pérez-García, F., et al. Spain high concern no banked NP 320 60.0% (95% CI 52.2-67.4) 100% (95% CI 97.6-100)
Pérez‐García, F., et al. Spain unclear yes unclear NP 356 60.0% (95% CI 52.2-67.4) 100% (95% CI 98.0-100)
Agullo, V., et al. Spain low concern yes fresh NP 652* 57.3% (95% CI 48.3-65.8) 99.8% (95% CI 98.8-100)
Schildgen, V., et al. Germany high concern yes unclear BAL/TW 73 50.0% (95% CI 34.2*-65.8*) 77.4% (95% CI 58.9*-90.4*)
Krüger, L.J., et al. Germany high concern yes fresh OP 74 50.0% (95% CI 1.3-98.7) 100% (95% CI 94.9-100)
Torres, I., et al. Spain  low concern no fresh NP 634 48.1% (95% CI 37.4-58.9) 100% (95% CI 99.3-100)
Wagenhäuser, I., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh OP 1029 46.7% (95% CI 24.8-69.9) 99.6% (95% CI 99.0-99.9)
Villaverde, S., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes fresh NP 1620 45.4% (95% CI 34.1-57.2) 99.8% (95% CI 99.4-99.9)
Agullo, V., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes fresh AN 659 44.7% (95% CI 36.1-53.6) 100% (95% CI 99.1-100)
Olearo, F., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes unclear OP 184 44.6% (95% CI 34.3-55.3) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Caruana, G., et al. Switzerland intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 41.2% (not provided) 99.5% (not provided)
Baro, B., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 38.6% (95% CI 29.1-48.8) 99.5% (95% CI 97-100)
Agullo, V., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes fresh saliva 610 23.1% (95% CI 16.2-31.9) 100% (95% CI 99.0-100)
Muhi, S. Australia low concern yes fresh NP 2413 not provided 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
                 
Abbott, Panbio™ (nasal sampling)
FINDdx Germany low concern yes fresh AN/MT 281 86.4% (95% CI 73.3-93.9) 99.2% (95% CI 97-99.8)
                 
Access Bio, CareStart™ COVID-19 Antigen Test
Pollock, N.R., et al. USA low concern yes fresh AN 1498 57.7% (95% CI 51.1-64.1) 98.3% (95% CI 97.5-99.0)
                 
ACON, Flowflex™ SARS-CoV-2
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 25 100% (95% CI 78.2-100) 100% (not provided)
                 
AMP, Rapid Test SARS-CoV-2 Ag
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 15 85.7% (95% CI 42.1-99.6) 100% (not provided)
Leixner, G., et al. Austria intermediate concern yes fresh NP 392 69.2% (95% CI 58.8-78.3) 99.7% (95% CI 98.1-100)
                 
Assure Tech, Ecotest COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test            
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 494 97.7% (95% CI 92.8-99.4) compared to viral culture 97.5% (95% CI 95.2-98.8)
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 494 76.2% (95% CI 68.8-82.4) 97.3% (95% CI 94.-98.7)
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 318 75.7% (95% CI 66.5-83.5) 96.7% (95% CI 93.3-98.7)
                 
Assut, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Detection Kit
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 31 71.4% (95% CI 29.0-96.3) 100% (not provided)
                 
Becton, Dickinson and Company, BD Veritor™
Pekosz, A., et al. USA high concern no fresh NP 251 96.4% (95% CI 82.3-99.4)
compared to virus culture
98.7% (95% CI 96.1-99.7)
compared to virus culture
Van der Moeren, N., et al. Netherlands intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP 351* 94.1% (95% CI 71.1-100) 100% (95% CI 98.9-100)
Marti, J.L.G., et al. USA unclear yes fresh AN unknown 93.8% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Yin, N., et al. Belgium low concern no banked NP 177 87.7% (95% CI 80.1-92.7) not provided
Christensen, K., et al. USA low concern no unclear AN 278 86.7% (95% CI 75.8-93.1) 99.5% (95% CI 97.4-99.9)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. Netherlands high concern yes banked NP 80 77.5% (95% CI 61.1-88.6) not provided
Young, S., et al. USA intermediate concern no banked NP 251 76.3%* (95% CI 60.8*-87.0*) 99.5%* (95% CI 97.4*-99.9*)
Kilic, A., et al. USA low concern yes fresh AN 1384 66.4% (95% CI 57.0-74.9) 98.8% (95% CI 98.1-99.3)
Schuit, E., et al. Netherlands intermediate concern yes fresh NP 2678 63.9% (95% CI 57.4-70.1) 99.6% (95% CI 99.3-99.8)
Caruana, G., et al. Switzerland intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 41.2% (not provided) 99.7% (not provided)
                 
Becton, Dickinson and Company, Hometest
Stohr, J.J.J.M., et al. Netherlands low concern yes fresh AN 1604 48.9% (95% CI 41.6-56.2) 99.9% (95% CI 995.-100)
                 
Beijing Savant Biotechnology, SARS-CoV-2 detection kit
Weitzel, T., et al. Chile high concern no banked NP/OP 109 16.7% (95% CI 10.0-26.5*) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
                 
Bioperfectus Technologies, Novel Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) Ag Rapid Test
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 21 80.0% (95% CI 44.4-97.5) 100% (not provided)
                 
BioSpeedia COVIDSpeed-Antigen Test 
Reza, S., et al. Belgium intermediate concern no fresh NP 401 65.5% (95% CI 59.0-71.6) 100% (95% CI 97.8-100)
                 
Biotime, COVID-19 Antigen Test Cassette
Seitz, T., et al. Austria intermediate concern unclear fresh saliva 40 44.4% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
                 
Bionote, NowCheck®
FINDdx Brazil low concern yes fresh AN  218 89.9% (95% CI 81.3-94.8) 98.6% (95% CI 94.9-99.6)
FINDdx Brazil low concern yes fresh NP 218 89.9% (95% CI 81.3-94.8) 98.6% (95% CI 94.9-99.6)
FINDdx Brazil low concern yes fresh NP 400 89.2% (95% CI 81.7-93.9) 97.3% (95% CI 94.8-98.6)
Rottenstreich, A., et al. Israel low concern yes unclear NP 1326 55.6% (95% CI 21.2-86.3) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
                 
Bio-Rad, Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test Cassette
Blairon, L., et al. Belgium high concern no banked NP 199 60.0% (95% CI 52.2-67.8) 100% (95% CI 100-100)
                 
Biotical Health, SARS-CoV-2 Ag Card
Favresse, J., et al. Belgium intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 66.7% (95% CI 56.3-76.0) 98.8% (95% CI 94.1-99.9)
                 
CerTest Biotec, SARS-CoV-2 one step test card
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 17 62.5% (95% CI 24.5-91.5) 100% (not provided)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. Netherlands high concern yes banked NP 80 55.0% (95% CI 38.7-70.4) 97.5% (95% CI 85.3-99.9) 
Pérez-García, F., et al. Spain high concern no banked NP 320 53.5% (95% CI 45.7-61.2) 100% (95% CI 97.6-100)
                 
Coris BioConcept, COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip
Yin, N., et al. Belgium low concern no banked NP 135 80.0% (95% CI 69.2-87.7) not provided
Mertens, P., et al. Belgium intermediate concern no banked NP 328 57.6% (95% CI 48.7*-66.1*) 99.5% (95% CI 97.2*-100*)
Lambert-Niclot, S., et al. France unclear yes fresh NP 138 50.0% (95% CI 39.5-60.5) 100% (95% CI 91.8-100)
Krüger, L.J., et al. Germany/England intermediate concern yes unclear NP/OP 417 50.0% (95% CI 21.5-78.5) 95.8% (95% CI 93.4-97.4)
Ciotti, M., et al. Italy unclear yes fresh NP 50 30.8% (95% CI 17.0-47.6) 100% (95% CI 71.5-100)
Scohy, A., et al. Belgium intermediate concern no fresh NP 148 30.2% (95% CI 21.7-39.9) 100% (95% CI 91.6*-100*)
Veyrenche, N., et al. France high concern yes fresh NP 65 29.0% (95% CI 15.7-42.3) 100% (95% CI 83.2*-100*)
                 
Denka, Quick Navi
Akashi, Y., et al. Japan low concern no banked NP 96 87.5% (95% CI 79.2-93.4) not provided
Takeuchi, Y., et al. Japan low concern no fresh NP 1186 86.7% (95% CI 78.6-92.5) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Takeuchi, Y., et al. Japan unclear no fresh AN 862 71.5% (95% CI 58.3-84.1) 100% (95% CI 99.3-100)
                 
DiaSorin, LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag
Fiedler, M., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 182 92.0% (95% CI 85.0-96.0) cut-off: 22.8 TCID50/ml 81.0% (95% CI 69.0-89.0)
Fiedler, M., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 182 91.0% (95% CI 84.0-95.0) cut-off: 23.6 TCID50/ml 83.0% (95% CI 72.0-91.0)
Fiedler, M., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 182 79.0% (95% CI 70.0-86.0) cut-off: 57.7 TCID50/ml 99.0% (95% CI 91.0-100)
Fiedler, M., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 182 75.0% (95% CI 66.0-83.0) cut-off: 100 TCID50/ml 100% (95% CI 94.0-100)
Fiedler, M., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 182 70.0% (95% CI 60.0-78.0) cut-off: 200 TCID50/ml 100% (95% CI 94.0-100)
Lefever, S., et al. Belgium low concern no banked NP 414 65.7% (95% CI 58.9-71.9) 100% (95% CI 97.8-100)
                 
Dräger, Antigen Test SARS-CoV-2              
Osmanodja, B., et al. Germany low concern no fresh NP/OP 379 88.6% (95% CI 78.7-94.9) 99.7% (95% CI 98.2-100)
Osmanodja, B., et al. Germany low concern no fresh NP/OP 44 88.6% (not provided) not provided
Osmanodja, B., et al. Germany low concern no fresh NP/OP 26 84.6% (not provided) not provided
                 
EcoDiagnostica, COVID-19 Ag
Filgueiras, P.S., et al. Brazil unclear no fresh NP 150 69.0% (95% CI 55.0-81.0) 98.0% (95% CI 94.0-100)
                 
Fujirebio, ESPLINE® SARS-CoV-2
Lindner, A. K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh AN 1692 94.1% (95% CI 73.0-99.7) based on B.1.1.7 variant not provided
Takeda, Y., et al. Japan high concern no unclear NP 162 80.7%* (95% CI 68.6*-89.6*) 100%* (95% CI 96.4*-100*)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 17 80.0% (95% CI 44.4-97.5) 100% (not provided)
FINDdx Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 723 78.6% (95% CI 70.1-85.2) 100% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Yokota, I., et al. Japan high concern no banked NP 17 58.8%* (95% CI 32.9*-81.6*) not provided
Yokota, I., et al. Japan high concern no banked saliva 17 23.5%* (95% CI 6.8*-49.9*) not provided
Sberna, G., et al. Italy unclear yes unclear saliva 136 8.1% (95% CI 2.7-17.8) 100% (95% CI 95.1-100)
                 
Fujirebio, Lumipulse® G SARS-CoV-2 Ag
Gili, A., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked NP 226 100% (95% CI 96.0-100) 94.8% (95% CI 93.6-95.8)
Yokota, I., et al. Japan high concern no banked NP 17 100% (95% CI 80.5*-100) not provided
Gili, A., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes fresh NP 1738 92.6% (95% CI 85.4-97.0) 90.8% (95% CI 84.5-95.2)
Matsuzaki, N., et al. Japan low concern yes fresh NP 128 87.8% (not provided) 98.7% (not provided)
Yokota, I., et al. Japan high concern no banked saliva 17 82.4%* (95% CI 56.6*-96.2*) not provided
Basso, D., et al. Italy low concern yes fresh NP 234 81.6% (95% CI 71.0-89.5) 93.8% (95% CI 86.2-98.0)
Menchinelli, G., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked NP 594 79.9% (95% CI 73.6-85.3) 99.3% (95% CI 97.8-99.8)
Asai, N., et al. Japan low concern no unclear saliva 305 77.8% (not provided) 98.3% (not provided)
Asai, N., et al. Japan low concern no unclear saliva 305 77.8% (not provided) 99.6% (not provided)
Asai, N., et al. Japan low concern no unclear saliva 305 68.3% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Basso, D., et al. Italy low concern yes fresh saliva 223 41.3% (95% CI 30.4-52.8) 98.6% (95% CI 95.0-99.8)
                 
GSD NovaGen SARS-CoV-2 Ag Rapid Test
Blairon, L., et al. Belgium high concern no banked NP 199 59.9% (95% CI 51.5-67.2) 75.9% (95% CI 75.9-95.5)
                 
Guangzhou Wondfo Biotech, 2019-nCoV Antigen Test
FINDdx Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 328 85.7% (95% CI 74.3-92.6) 100% (95% CI 98.6-100)
                 
Humasis, COVID-19 Ag Test              
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 21 85.7% (95% CI 65.4-95.0) not provided
                 
Healgen, Rapid COVID-19 Ag Test
Favresse, J., et al. Belgium intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 77.1% (95% CI 67.4-85.1) 96.7% (95% CI 90.8-99.3)
                 
ichroma, COVID-19 AG
FINDdx Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 232 73.2% (95% CI 58.1-84.3) 100% (95% CI 98.0-100)
                 
Innova Medical Group, INNOVA SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Qualitative Test
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 46 97.8% (95% CI 88.7-100)
compared to viral culture
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 200 89.0% (95% CI 81.4-93.8) 99.0% (95% CI 94.6-100)
Houston, H., et al. United Kingdom low concern yes fresh NP 242 86.4% (CI 95% 81.1-90.0) 95.1% (CI 95% 92.6-96.7)
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 23 82.6%* (not provided) not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 23 82.6%* (not provided) not provided
Peto, T., et al. United Kingdom unclear yes unclear unclear 6954 not provided 99.7% (not provided)
Peto, T., et al. United Kingdom unclear yes unclear unclear 198 78.8% (95% CI 72.4-84.3) not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 23 78.3%* (not provided)
based on B.1.1.7 variant
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 110 78.2 (95% CI 70.0-84.9) not provided
Peto, T., et al. United Kingdom unclear yes unclear unclear 223 70.0% (95% CI 63.5-75.9) not provided
Young, B.C., et al. United Kingdom unclear yes fresh NP 803 62.4% (95% CI 55.6-69.0) 100% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Peto, T., et al. United Kingdom unclear yes unclear unclear 372 57.5% (95% CI 52.3-62.6) not provided
García-Fiñana, M., et al. UK low concern yes fresh OP/AN 5869 40.0% (95% CI 28.5-52.4) 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-100)
Ferguson, J., et al. United Kingdom intermediate concern yes fresh AN 720 3.23% (95% CI 0.6-15.59) 100% (95% CI 99.48-100)
                 
JOYSBIO Biotechnology, COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test Kit
FINDdx Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 265 70.5% (95% CI 55.8-81.8) 99.1% (95% CI 96.8-99.8)
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 225 57.8% (95% CI 46.9-68.1) 98.5% (95% CI 94.8-99.8)
                 
Lab Care Diagnostics, PathoCatch/ACCUCARE SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test          
Thakur, P., et al. India low concern unclear fresh NP 677 34.5% (95% CI 24.5-45.6) 99.8% (95% CI 99.1-100)
                 
Lepu Medical, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test Kit
Baro, B., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 45.5% (95% CI 35.6-55.8) 89.2% (95% CI 83.8-93.3)
                 
Liming Bio, SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDT
Weitzel, T., et al. Chile high concern no banked NP/OP 19 0.0% (95% CI 0.0-29.9) 90.0% (95% CI 59.6-98.2)
                 
Lituo Biotechnology, COVID-19 antigen detection
kit (colloidal gold)
         
Terpos, E., et al. Slovenia unclear yes fresh AN 359 91.7% (95% CI 85.1-95.6) 100% (95% CI 98.5-100)
Terpos, E., et al. Slovenia unclear yes fresh NP 358 89.5% (95% CI 85.9-92.2) 99.6% (95% CI 98.2-99.9)
                 
LumiraDx, COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test
Drain, P.K., et al. UK/US low concern no fresh AN 257 97.6% (95% CI 91.6-99.3) 96.6% (95% CI 92.7-98.4)
Drain, P.K., et al. UK/US low concern no fresh NP 255 97.5% (95% CI 87.1-99.0) 97.7% (95% CI 94.7-99.0)
Bianco, G., et al. Italy low concern yes fresh AN 907 90.3% (95% CI 86.3-93.4) 92.1% (95% CI 89.7-94.1)
Fernández, M. D., et al Spain unclear unclear unclear AN 46 87.5% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Caramello, V., et al. Italy low concern yes unclear NP 149 86.6% (not provided) 88.5% (not provided)
Krüger, L.J., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh MT 761 82.2% (95% CI 75.2-87.5) 99.3% (95% CI 98.3-99.7)
Micocci, M., et al. United Kingdom unclear no fresh NP 241 75.0% (not provided) 96.1% (not provided)
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 23 69.6% (95% CI 49.4-84.4) not provided
Blairon, L., et al. Belgium high concern no banked NP 199 61.1% (95% CI 53.3-68.9) 100% (95% CI 100-100)
Kohmer, N., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 50.0% (95% CI 38.1-61.9) 100% (95% CI 86.8-100)
Dierks, S., et al. Germany unclear yes unclear NP 444 45.45% (95% CI 20.22-73.26) 99.54% (95% CI 98.17-99.88)
                 
MEDsan®, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test
Olearo, F., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes unclear OP 184 45.8% (35.5%-56.5%) 97.0% (91.5%-98.9%)
Wagenhäuser, I., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh OP 3221 36.5% (95% CI 25.7-48.2) 99.6% (95% CI 99.3-99.8)
                 
Microprofit Biotech, fluorecare® SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 21 91.7% (95% CI 61.5-99.8) 100% (not provided)
                 
Mizuho Medy Co., Ltd., Quick Chaser Auto SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Kit
Akashi, Y., et al. Japan low concern no banked NP 96 87.5% (95% CI 79.2-93.4) not provided
                 
MOLOGIC, COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Test              
Lindner, A. K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh AN 1692 91.1% (95% CI 85.9-94.5) based on B.1.1.7 variant not provided
FINDdx Germany low concern yes fresh AN/NMT 665 90.6% (95% CI 85.6-94.0) 100% (95% CI 99.2-100)
                 
NAL von minden, NADAL
FINDdx Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 462 88.4% (95% CI 78.8-94.0) 99.2% (95% CI 97.8-99.7)
Strömer, A., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 124 73.1% (not provided) not provided
Wagenhäuser, I., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh OP 806 56.5% (95% CI 36.8-74.4) 100% (95% CI 99.5-100)
Kohmer, N., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 24.3% (95% CI 15.1-35.7) 100% (95% CI 86.8-100)
Dierks, S., et al. Germany unclear yes unclear NP 215 14.29% (95% CI 1.94-58.35) 76.44% (95% CI 70.16-81.74)
                 
NanoEntek, FREND™ COVID-19 Ag              
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 60 93.3% (95% CI 84.1-97.4) not provided
                 
NDFOS, ND COVID-19 Ag Test              
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 191 70.1% (95% CI 58.6-80.0) 56.1% (95% CI 46.4-65.4)
                 
Orient Gene, Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test
Nordgren, J., et al. Sweden intermediate concern no banked NP 332 79.5% (95% CI 72.3-85.6) 74.4% (95% CI 67.3-80.1)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 22 50.0% (95% CI 18.7-81.3) 100% (not provided)
                 
Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test
Favresse, J., et al. Belgium intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 83.3% (95% CI 74.4-90.2) 100% (95% CI 96.1-100)
Matsuzaki, N., et al. Japan low concern yes fresh NP 128 75.5% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
                 
Phase Scientific International, INDICAID® COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Test
Chiu, R., et al. USA intermediate concern no fresh AN 349 85.3% (95% CI 75.6-91.6) 94.9% (95% CI 91.6-96.9)
Chiu, R., et al. Hong Kong intermediate concern no fresh AN 22994 84.2% (95% CI 69.6-92.6) 99.9% (95% CI 99.9-100)
Chiu, R., et al. USA intermediate concern no fresh AN 349 82.7% (95% CI 72.6-89.6) 96.4% (95% CI 93.4-98.0)
                 
Precision Biosensors, Exdia COVID-19 Ag
Caruana, G., et al. Switzerland intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 48.3% (not provided) 99.5% (not provided)
                 
Premier Medical Corporation, Sure Status COVID-19 Antigen Card Test
Lindner, A. K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh AN 1692 93.4% (95% CI 85.5-97.2) based on B.1.1.7 variant not provided
                 
PRIMA, COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test              
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 50 66.0% (95% CI 52.2-95.0) not provided
                 
QUIDEL, Sofia SARS Antigen FIA
Porte, L., et al. Chile high concern no banked NP/OP 64 93.8% (95% CI 79.9-98.3) 96.9% (95% CI 84.3-99.4)
Harris, D. T., et al. USA low concern yes fresh AN 885 82.3% (not provided) 98.2% (not provided)
Jääskeläinen, A.E., et al. Finland high concern yes banked NP 188 80.0% (95% CI 73.3-86.0) 100% (not provided)
Beck, E.T., et al. USA intermediate concern yes fresh NP 346 77.0% (95% CI 64.5*-86.9*) 99.6% (95% CI 98.1*-100*)
Herrera, V., et al. USA unclear yes unclear unclear 1172 76.8% (95% CI 72.6-80.5) 99.2% (95% CI 98.2-99.7)
Smith, R., et al. USA low concern yes fresh NP 2887 76.6% (95% CI 71.0-82.0) 99.7% (95% CI 99.0-100)
Marti, J.L.G., et al. USA unclear yes fresh MT 427 72.0% (not provided) 99.0% (not provided)
Bornemann, L., et al. Germany high concern yes fresh NP 1404 57.1% (not provided) 99.3% (not provided)
Harris, D. T., et al. USA low concern yes fresh AN 1525 not provided 100% (not provided)
                 
RapiGEN, Biocredit Covid-19 Antigen Detection Kit
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. Russia low concern yes fresh NP 106 100% (95% CI 76.8-100)
compared to virus culture
67.4% (95% CI 56.8-76.8)
compared to virus culture
Shrestha, B., et al. Nepal intermediate concern yes fresh NP 113 85.0% (95% CI 71.7*-93.8*) 100% (95% CI 94.6*-100*)
FINDdx Brazil low concern yes fresh NP 476 74.4% (95% CI 65.8-81.4) 99.0% (95% CI 97.2-99.6)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. Libya low concern yes unclear NP 39 62.5% (95% CI 35.4-84.4) 100% (not provided)
Weitzel, T., et al. Chile high concern no banked NOP 109 62.0% (95% CI 51.0-71.9) 100% (95% CI 88.7-100)
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. Russia low concern yes fresh NP 106 56.4% (95% CI 44.7-67.6) 100% (95% CI 87.7-100)
FINDdx Germany low concern yes fresh ONP 1239 52% (95% CI 33.5-70.0) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 23 39.1% (95% CI 22.2-59.2) not provided
Schildgen, V., et al. Germany high concern yes unclear BAL/TW 73 33.3% (95% CI 19.6*-49.6*) 87.1% (95% CI 70.2*-94.6*)
Kenyeres, B., et al. Hungary high concern yes fresh NP 37 8.11% (not provided) not provided
                 
R-Biopharm, RIDA®QUICK SARS-CoV-2 Antigen
Toptan, T., et al. Germany intermediate concern no banked unclear 67 77.6% (95% CI 64.7*-87.5*) 100% (95% CI 66.4*-100*)
Toptan, T., et al. Germany unclear no banked NP/OP 70 50.0% (95% CI 31.9*-68.1*) 100% (95% CI 90.8*-100*)
Kohmer, N., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 39.2% (95% CI 28.0-51.2) 96.2% (95% CI 80.4-99.9)
                 
Roche, Elecsys® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test              
Nörz, D., et al. Germany intermediate concern no banked NP/OP 3139 60.2% (95% CI 55.2-65.1) 99.9% (95% CI 99.6-100)
                 
Roche, SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test               
Thell, R., et al. Austria unclear no fresh unclear 591 80.3% (95% CI 74.3-85.4) 99.1% (95% CI 97.4-99.8)
Fernandez-Montero, A., et al. Spain low concern no fresh NP 2543 71.4% (95% CI 56.74-83.4) 99.7% (95% CI 99.4-99.9)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. Netherlands high concern yes banked NP 80 62.5% (95% CI 45.8-76.8) 87.5% (95% CI 72.4-95.3)
Šterbenc, A., et al. Slovenia low concern yes fresh NP 36 not provided 100% (95% CI not provided) 
                 
Romed Holland, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Schnelltest Kassette
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. Netherlands high concern yes banked NP 900 73.3% (95% CI 67.9-78.2) 99.8% (95% CI 98.9-100)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. Netherlands high concern yes banked NP 80 72.5% (95% CI 55.9-84.9) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100) 
                 
Salofa, Salocor SARS-CoV-2 Antigen
Ahava, M.J., et al. Finland high concern yes frozen serum 148 96.2% (95% CI 80.4-99.9) 98.0% (95% CI 94.2-99.6)
                 
SD Biosensor, Standard F
Porte, L., et al. Chile high concern no banked NP/OP 64 90.6% (95% CI 75.8-96.8) 96.9% (95% CI 84.3-99.4)
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 60 86.7% (95% CI 75.8-93.1) not provided
FINDdx Brazil low concern yes fresh NP 453 77.5% (95% CI 69.2-84.1) 97.9% (95% CI 95.7-99.0)
FINDdx Germany low concern yes fresh ONP 676 69.2% (95% CI 53.6-81.4) 96.9% (95% CI 95.2-98)
Pérez‐García, F., et al. Spain unclear yes unclear NP 356 66.5% (95% CI 58.8-73.5) 97.3% (95% CI 93.8-99.1)
Drevinek, P., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 591 62.3% (95% CI 55.8-68.4) 99.5% (95% CI 98.0-99.9)
Osterman, A., et al. Germany high concern yes unclear NP/OP 360 60.9% (95% CI 53.7-67.5) 97.8% (95% CI 95.7-98.9)
Liotti, F.M., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked NP 359 47.1% (95% CI 37.1-57.1) 98.4% (95% CI 96.0-99.6)
                 
SD Biosensor / Roche, Standard Q (NP sampling)
Chaimayo, C., et al. Thailand intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP 454 98.3% (95% CI 91.1-100) 98.7% (95% CI 97.1-99.6)
Bruzzone, B., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes banked unclear 16 93.8% (95% CI 71.7-98.9) not provided
Kerneis, S., et al. France low concern no fresh NP 1109 94% (95% CI 86.0-98.0) 99% (95% CI 98.0-99.0)
Schwob, J.M., et al. Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 333 92.9% (95% CI 86.4-96.9) 100% (95% CI 98.3*-100*)
Nikolai, O., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh NP 96 91.2% (95% CI 77.0-97.0) 100% (95% CI 94.2-100)
Berger, A., et al. Switzerland low concern yes fresh NP 529 89.0% (95% CI 83.7-93.1) 99.7% (95% CI 98.4-100)
FINDdx Brazil low concern yes fresh NP 400 88.7% (95% CI 81.3-93.4) 97.6% (95% CI 95.2-98.8)
Schildgen, V., et al. Germany high concern yes unclear BAL/TW 73 88.1% (95% CI 74.4*-96.0*) 19.4% (95% CI 7.5*-37.5*)
Lindner, A.K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh NP 139 85.0% (955 CI 70.9-92.9) 99.1% (95% CI 94.8-99.5)
Iglὁi, Z., et al. Netherlands low concern yes fresh NP 970 84.9% (95% CI 79.1-89.4) 99.5% (95% CI 98.7-99.8)
Gupta, A., et al. India low concern yes fresh NP 330 81.8% (95% CI 71.3-89.6) 99.6% (95% CI 97.8-99.9)
Jääskeläinen, A.E., et al. Finland high concern yes banked NP 198 81.0% (95% CI 74.2-86.4) 100% (not provided)
Turcato, G., et al. Italy unclear unclear fresh NP 3410 80.3% (95% CI 74.9-85.4) 99.1% (95% CI 98.6-99.3)
Lindner, A.K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh NP 289 79.5% (95% CI 64.5-89.2) 99.6% (95% CI 97.8-100)
Yin, N., et al. Belgium low concern no banked NP 65 78.3% (95% CI 58.1-90.3) not provided
Amer, R. M., et al Egypt intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP 83 78.2% (95% CI 67.0-86.0) 64.2% (95% CI 38.0-83.0)
Krüger, L.J., et al. Germany/England intermediate concern yes unclear NP/OP 1263 76.6% (95% CI 62.8-86.4) 99.3% (95% CI 98.6-99.6)
Möckel, M., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 271 75.3% (95% CI 65.8-83.4) 100% (95% CI 98.4-100)
Lindner, A.K., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh AN 289 74.4% (95% CI 58.9-85.4) 99.2% (95% CI 97.1-99.8)
Caramello, V., et al. Italy low concern yes unclear NP 175 74.3% (not provided) 98.4% (not provided)
Lindner, A.K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh NP 180 73.0% (95% CI 58.1-84.3) 99.3% (95% CI 96.0-100)
Salvagno, G.L., et al. Italy intermediate concern yes unclear NP 321 72.5% (95% CI 64.6-79.5) 99.4% (95% CI 96.8-100)
Cerutti, F., et al. Italy unclear yes unclear NP 185 72.1% (95% CI 62.5*-80.5*) 100% (95% CI 95.6*-100*)
Möckel, M., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 2020 72.0% (95% CI 53.3-86.7) 99.4% (95% CI 97.3-99.9)
Krüttgen, A., et al. Germany high concern yes banked NP 150 70.7% (95% CI 59.0*-80.6*) 96.0% (95% CI 88.9*-99.2*)
Nalumansi, A., et al. Uganda low concern yes fresh NP 262 70.0% (95% CI 60.0-79.0) 92.0% (95% CI 87.0-96.0)
Pena, M., et al. Chile low concern yes fresh NP 842 69.8% (95% CI 58.5-79.2) 99.6% (95% CI 98.86-99.87)
Favresse, J., et al. Belgium intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 69.8% (95% CI 59.6-78.8) 100% (95% CI 96.1-100)
Holzner, C., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh NP 2375 68.9% (95% CI 67.0-70.7) 99.6% (95% CI 99.3-99.8)
Osterman, A., et al. Germany high concern yes unclear NP/OP 386 64.5% (95% CI 58.4-70.1) 97.7% (95% CI 95.6-98.8)
Abdul-Mumin, A., et al. Ghana low concern yes fresh NP 193 64.0% (95% CI 49.0-79.0) 81.0% (95% CI 75.0-87.0)
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 139 61.9% (95% CI 45.6-76.4) 99% (95% CI 94.4-100)
Schuit, E., et al. Netherlands low concern yes fresh NP 1596 62.9% (95% CI 54.0-71.1) 99.5% (95% CI 98.9-99.8)
Ristic, M., et al. Serbia low concern yes fresh NP 120 58.1% (95% CI 42.1-73.0) 100% (not provided)
Kannian, P., et al. India high concern yes unclear saliva 37 56.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Olearo, F., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes unclear OP 184 49.4% (95% CI 38.9-59.9) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Baro, B., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 43.6% (95% CI 33.7-53.8) 96.2% (95% CI 92.4-98.5)
Kohmer, N., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 43.2% (95% CI 37.8-55.3) 100% (95% CI 86.8-100)
Caruana, G., et al. Switzerland intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 41.2% (not provided) 99.7%  (not provided)
Cerutti, F., et al. Italy unclear yes fresh NP 145 40.0% (95% CI 5.3*-85.3*) 100% (95% CI 97.4*-100*)
Caruana, G., et al. Switzerland intermediate concern yes fresh NP 116 28.6% (not provided) 98.2%
Kumar, K. K., et al. India intermediate concern yes fresh NP + throat 204 16.7% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
                 
SD Biosensor / Roche, Standard Q (nasal sampling)
Nikolai, O., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh MT 96 91.2% (95% CI 77.0-97.0) 100% (95% CI 94.2-100)
Nikolai, O., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh MT 132 86.1% (95% CI 71.3-93.9) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
Nikolai, O., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh AN 132 86.1% (95% CI 71.3-93.9) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
Linder, A.K., et al. Germany low concern yes fresh MT 180 80.5% (95% CI 66-89.8) 98.6% (95% CI 94.9-99.6)
Stohr, J.J.J.M., et al. Netherlands low concern yes fresh AN 1611 61.5% (95% CI 54.4-68.1) 99.7% (95% CI 99.3-99.9)
                 
Shenzhen Lvshiyuan Biotechnology, Green Spring® SARS-CoV-2-Antigen-Schnelltest-Set
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 200 77.0% (95% CI 67.9-84.2) 98.0% (95% CI 93.0-99.6)
                 
Shenzen Bioeasy Biotechnology, 2019-nCov Antigen Rapid Test Kit
Porte, L., et al. Chile high concern yes banked NP/OP 127 93.9% (95% CI 86.5-97.4) 100% (95% CI 92.1*-100*)
Weitzel, T., et al. Chile high concern no banked NP/OP 111 85.0% (95% CI 75.6-91.2) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
Parada-Ricart, E., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes fresh NP 172 73.1%* (95% CI 52.2*-88.4*) 85.6%* (95% CI 78.9*-90.9*)
Krüger, L.J., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 727 66.7% (95% CI 41.7-84.8) 93.1% (95% CI 91-94.8)
                 
Siemens Healthineers, CLINITEST® Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Test
Torres, I. et al. Spain low concern yes fresh NP 178 80.2% (95% CI 70.9-87.1) 100% (95% CI 95.8-100)
Torres, I. et al. Spain low concern yes fresh NP 92 60.0% (95% CI 40.7-76.6) 100% (95% CI 94.6-100)
Olearo, F., et al. Germany intermediate concern yes unclear OP 170 54.9% (95% CI 43.4-65.9) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Baro, B., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 51.5% (95% CI 41.3-61.6) 98.4% (95% CI 95.3-99.6)
                 
SIENNA, COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test
Bouassa, M.R.S., et al. France high concern no banked NP 100 90% (95% CI 84.1-95.9) 100% (95% CI 99.9-100)
                 
Sugentech, SGTi-flex COVID-19 Ag
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. Russia low concern yes fresh NP 106 78.6% (95% CI 49.2-95.3)
compared to viral culture
66.3% (95% CI 55.7-75.8)
compared to viral culture
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. Russia low concern yes fresh NP 106 52.6% (95% CI 40.9-64.0) 96.4% (95% CI 81.7-99.9)
                 
SureScreen, COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Visual Read
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 23 73.9%* (not provided) not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 200 65.0% (95% CI 55.3-73.6) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 23 65.2%* (not provided)
based on B.1.1.7 variant
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 23 60.8%* (not provided) not provided
Baro, B., et al. Spain intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 28.8% (95% CI 20.2-38.6) 97.8% (95% CI 94.5-99.4)
                 
SureScreen, COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Flourescent
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 57 94.7% (95% CI 85.6-98.6)
compared to viral culture
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 200 69.0% (95% CI 59.4-77.2) 98.0% (95% CI 93.0-99.6)
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 141 60.3% (95% CI 52.0-68.0) not provided
                 
VivaCheck, VivaDiag™ SARS-CoV-2 Ag Rapid Test            
Homza, M., et al. Czech Republic low concern yes fresh NP 268 41.8% (95% CI 31.5-52.6) 96.0% (95% CI 92.0-98.4)
                 
Zhuhai Encode Medical Engineering, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 34 100% (95% CI 89.9-100)
compared to viral culture
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 200 74.0% (95% CI 64.6-81.6) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Pickering, S., et al. United Kingdom high concern no banked AN/OP 90 74.4% (95% CI 64.6-82.3) not provided

* Values differ from those provided in the respective manuscript due to missing or contradictory data.

Abbreviations: NP = nasopharyngeal; OP = oropharyngeal; AN = anterior nasal; MT = mid turbine; LRT = lower respiratory tract; CI = confidence interval

Follow this link to get to the methods and sources section.

Furthermore, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute has published a list of Ag-RDTs that they consider to perform to the state of the art. A similar list has also been published by the Swiss Federal Institute for Public Health.

In addition to the evaluation of Ag-RDTs, we would also like to call attention to further research relevant to this topic.

Correlation of antigen and RNA concentrations:

Teststrategies:

Evaluation of the Abbott, Panbio in a low prevalence setting for monitoring:

Economic modelling: