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Global Health Resources


 “Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing more than medicine on a grand scale.” 
(R. Virchow)

This list was compiled in 2011 by Giulia Civitelli with support from Sabine Gabrysch and updated in 2013. No guarantee of completeness or correctness.

Weiterführende Literatur zum Thema

1. DEFINITIONS
2. HISTORICAL ARTICLES
3. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH 
4. TEACHING GLOBAL HEALTH 
5. GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH 
6. HEALTH SYSTEM, POLICY AND FUNDING 
7. MIGRATION AND HEALTH 
8. DEVELOPMENT AID 
9. WEB RESOURCES 
10. ONLINE COURSES 
11. NEWSLETTERS 
12. JOBS INFO

1. DEFINITIONS

Towards a common definition of global health.
Koplan JP, Bond TC, Merson MH, Reddy KS, Rodriguez MH, Sewankambo NK, Wasserheit JN.
Lancet 2009; 373: 1993-95.
(3 pages - free registration required)
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673609603329.pdf?id=40bade4753939e7f:320257d3:12f630db182:-2db21303039900829
The authors give a definition of global health, making a distinction between public health, international health and global health.

What is global health?
Beaglehole R, Bonita R.
Global Health Action 2010, 3: 5142
(2 pages)
http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/5142/5544
The authors propose a short and effective definition of global health, as a collaborative trans-national research and action for promoting health for all.

Anthropology and Global Health
Janes CR, Corbett KK,
Annual Review of Anthropology 2009; 38:167-83.
(12 pages)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164314
“This article addresses anthropology’s engagement with the emerging discipline of global health. We develop a definition for global health and then present four principal contributions of anthropology to global health: (a) ethnographic studies of health inequities in political and economic contexts; (b) analysis of the impact on local worlds of the assemblages of science and technology that circulate globally; (c) interrogation, analysis, and critique of international health programs and policies; and (d) analysis of the health consequences of the reconfiguration of the social relations of international health development.”

Four social theories for global health.
Kleinman A.
Lancet. 2010; 375(9725): 1518-9.
(2 pages)
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2810%2960646-0/fulltext
This article presents four social theories, included that of social suffering and that of biopower, which can be used to make more general sense of individual case studies in global health implementation.

Structural violence and clinical medicine.
Farmer PE, Nizeye B, Stulac S, Keshavjee S (2006).
PLoS Med 3(10): e449. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030449
(6 pages)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1621099/
In this article, the authors give a definition of structural violence, showing how social forces influence the health of people, and illustrate some examples on how it is possible to reduce health inequalities through projects which address both proximal and distal determinants of health.

Why and how is health a human right?
Sen A.
Lancet. 2008; 372(9655): 2010.
(1 page - free registration required)
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2808%2961784-5/fulltext
Amartya Sen explains why we can consider health a human right and points out the actions needed to promote it.

Rethinking the ‘global’ in global health: a dialectic approach
Bozorgmehr K.
Globalization and Health. 2010; 6:9
(17 pages)
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/6/1/19
This article argues that current definitions (global as worldwide, as transcending national boundaries, as holistic) are not specific and redundant to public health and international health, and proposes a fourth concept, global as supraterritorial, i.e. ‘links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world’.

2. HISTORICAL ARTICLES

The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine.
Engel GL.
Science. 1977; 196(4286): 129-36.
(7 pages)
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/196/4286/129.full.pdf
The dominant model of disease today is biomedical, and it leaves no room within its framework for the social, psychological, and behavioural dimensions of illness. A bio psychosocial model is proposed that provides a blueprint for research, a framework for teaching, and a design for action in the real world of health care.

Sick Individuals and Sick Populations
Rose G International Journal of Epidemiology 1985; 14(1): 32-38, reprinted in Bulletin of WHO 2001, 79(10): 990-6 with a foreword by Michael Marmot (9 pages) www.scielosp.org/pdf/bwho/v79n10/79n10a14.pdf In this highly influential article, Geoffrey Rose explains the difference between causes of individual disease and causes of disease in populations and the corresponding control strategies: the “high-risk approach” which focuses on individuals with a particularly high risk of disease (e.g. treating people with high cholesterol with drugs) and the “population approach” which seeks to influence the risk factor in whole population (e.g. changes in lifestyle in order to shift the population distribution of cholesterol towards lower values).

Rudolf Virchow on the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia: an introduction and translation
Taylor R, Rieger A. Sociology ofHealth and Illness Vol. 6 No. 2 1984 (14 pages) onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10778374/pdf This article includes the first English translation of Virchow’s report on the1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia, which is considered one of the neglected classic of social medicine. The authors trace the influence of this document to the future development of social medicine.

Social medicine then and now: lessons from Latin America.
Waitzkin H, Iriart C, Estrada A, Lamadrid S.
Am J Public Health. 2001; 91(10): 1592-601.
(9 pages)
ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/full/91/10/1592
This article outlines the history and the recent fields of research of Latin American social medicine, whose accomplishments remain little known in the English speaking world.

3. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH

Social determinants of health inequalities.
Marmot M.
Lancet 2005; 365: 1099-104.
(5 pages)
https://www.who.int/social_determinants/strategy/Marmot-Social%20determinants%20of%20health%20inqualities.pdf
This article gives an effective summary of Michael Marmot’s work on social determinants of health. It highlights growing inequalities in our contemporary world.

Social determinants of health. The solid facts
Marmot M, Wilkinson RG.
Denmark, WHO - World Health Organization 2003.
(33 pages)
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf
This document provides evidence on social determinants of health in a clear way in order to increase awareness, stimulate debate and promote action. It also highlights consequences for policies in specific strategic fields, such as education, work, transport, nutrition, with lots of examples and graphs useful for educational purposes.

Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health.
Commission on the Social Determinants of Health.
Geneva, WHO - World Health Organization 2008.
(Available in 5 languages: Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish)
www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/finalreport/en/index.html
This is the final report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, established by WHO in 2005. The most important recommendation of the report is the need for all governments to act on social determinants of health in order to remove all existing inequalities within and between countries.

The Spirit Level. Why more equal societies almost always do better.
Wilkinson R, Pickett K.
London: Penguin, 2009.
Gleichheit ist Glück: Warum gerechte Gesellschaften für alle besser sind.
Haffmans & Tolkemitt Verlag (DE)
(Book)
This book shows the relationship between income distribution and health status within countries. The book claims that there are "pernicious effects that inequality has on societies: eroding trust, increasing anxiety and illness, (and) encouraging excessive consumption." It claims that for each of eleven different health and social problems: physical health, mental health, drug abuse, education, imprisonment, obesity, social mobility, trust and community life, violence, teenage pregnancies, and child well-being, outcomes are substantially worse in more unequal rich countries. Statistics are given for 23 of the top 50 rich countries and also for 50 states of the United States of America. The book contains graphs and charts, also available online.

What we mean by social determinants of health.
Navarro V. 
International Journal of Health Services, Volume 39, Number 3, Pages 423–441, 2009
(19 pages)
http://www.educsantepicardie.org/_admin/Repertoire/documents/245_091013081340.pdf
This article analyzes the changes in health conditions and quality of life in the populations of developed and developing countries over the past 30 years, resulting from neoliberal policies developed by many governments and promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Health Organization, and other international agencies. It challenges interpretations by the analysts of “globalization,” including the common assumption that states are disappearing. The author shows that what has been happening is not a reduction of state interventions but a change in the nature and character of those interventions, resulting from major changes in class (and race and gender) power relations in each country, with establishment of an alliance between the dominant classes of developed and developing countries—a class alliance responsible for the promotion of its ideology, neoliberalism. This is the cause of the enormous health inequalities in the world today. The article concludes with a critical analysis of the WHO report on social determinants of health, applauding its analysis and many of its recommendations, but faulting it for ignoring the power relations that shape these social determinants. It is not inequalities that kill people, as the report states; it is those who are responsible for these inequalities that kill people.

Fair Society, Healthy Lives. The Marmot review. Strategic review on health inequalities in England post-2010
Marmot M, et al.
London, 2009.
(7 pages)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033350612001862
PDF: http://goo.gl/JOjL8
Report on inequalities in health in the United Kingdom.

Social Relationships Are Key to Health, and to Health Policy.
The PLoS Medicine Editors,
PLoS Med 2010; 7(8): e1000334.
(2 pages)
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000334

Social Relationships and Mortality Risk: A Meta-analytic Review.
Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Layton JB.
PLoS Med 2010; 7(7): e1000316.
(15 pages)
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000316
A systematic review shows the importance of social relationship on survival.

Crocodile tears for health inequality.
Heath I.
BMJ. 2010; 340: c2970.
(1 page)
http://www.bmj.com/content/340/bmj.c2970.extract
The author pulls down health researchers, who document the existence of health inequalities but don’t act against them.

Closing the Gap: Where are we one year later?
Social Medicine Editors.
Social Medicine 2009; 4: 3, 136-138
(2 pages)
http://journals.sfu.ca/socialmedicine/index.php/socialmedicine/article/view/363
A brief reflection on how things are going one year after the publication of the final report of the Commission on Social Determinats of Health.

What is Said, What is Silenced, What is Obscured: The Report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. 
Escudero JC. Social Medicine 2009; 4: 3, 183-185 (3 pages) www.medicinasocial.info/index.php/socialmedicine/article/viewArticle/369 A brief critic to the final report of the Commission on Social Determinats of health; according to the author it doesn´t address the real causes of health inequalities and of the inequal distribution of power needed to improve collective health.

Confronting health disparities: Latin American social medicine in Venezuela
Briggs CL, Mantini-Briggs C.
Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(3): 549-55.
(7 pages)
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/full/99/3/549
One example of Latin American Social Medicine.

Social Determinants of Health – What Doctors Can Do. British Medical Association, 2011.
(28 pages)
http://goo.gl/s6wWx
Report on how doctors can contribute to improving not only the health of individuals, but of society as a whole, by tackling the social determinants of health.

4. TEACHING GLOBAL HEALTH

Bringing global issues to medical teaching.
Bateman C, Baker T, Hoornenborg E, Ericsson U.
Lancet 2001; 358: 1539-42.
(4 pages)
ippnw.org/pdf/LancetArticle.pdf
This article underlines the need of a new medical education about global health and it gives some examples, emphasizing how medical student are leading this transformation.

Introducing medical students to global health issues: a Bachelor of Science degree in international health.
Yudkin JS, Bayley O, Elnour S, Willott C, Miranda JJ.
Lancet 2003; 362: 822-24.
(3 pages - free registration required)
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2803%2914276-6/fulltext
Experience from the International Health and Medical Education Centre at the University College London.

GandHI – The German response to deficits in medical education.
Bozorgmehr K, Özbay J. 
Lancet Student 2008.
http://www.thelancetstudent.com/legacy/2008/06/16/gandhi-%E2%80%93-the-german-response-to-deficits-in-medical-education/
This article describes the Globalization and Health Initiative, founded in Germany in 2006.

How doctors can close the gap. Tackling the social determinants of health through culture change, advocacy and education.
Royal College of Physicians, Policy Statement 2010.
(14 pages)
http://www.sdu.nhs.uk/documents/publications/1279291348_jQjW_how_doctors_can_close_the_gap.pdf
A document published by the Royal College of Physicians. It calls for specific and concrete actions to tackle health inequalities, and it gives recommendations in order to achieve a cultural, structural and educational change. 

International conference: Equal opportunities for health: action for development. A plan of action to advocate and teach global health.
Doctors with Africa CUAMM.
Health and Development, Special issue. July 2009.
(Report)
http://www.link2007.org/assets/files/documenti/Health_Develop09_Cuamm.pdf
Final document of the international conference held in Padua in 2009, at the end of the three years project ‘Equal opportunities for health: action for development.’

Reforming medical education: a review and synthesis of five critiques of medical practice.
Sales CS, Schlaff AL.
Social Science and Medicine. 2010; 70(11): 1665-8.
(4 pages)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VBF-4YK2F7H-5&_user=2717328&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1721940321&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000056831&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2717328&md5=085e45456fb62a49bb789827cf51210d&searchtype=a
This essay discusses the scope of educational reform needed in the U.S. to train tomorrow’s physicians to practice effectively in an increasingly complicated health care arena. It recognizes that Medicine is practiced in a context of social and organizational structures distinct from its biomedical substrate; that’s why it’s necessary to understand these structures to deliver optimum medical care. Health care reform must be accompanied by changes in medical education, with more attention to the social sciences.

The ‘global health’ education framework: a conceptual guide for monitoring, evaluation and practice
Bozorgmehr K, Saint VA, Tinnemann P
Globalization and Health. 2011; 7:8.
(11 pages)
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/7/1/8
This article aims to propose a framework conceptualising ‘global health’ education (GHE) in practice and to guide the evaluation and monitoring of educational interventions and reforms through a set of key indicators that
characterise GHE.

Global Health Education Consortium: Learning modules
http://globalhealtheducation.org/resources/SitePages/Home.aspx
The GHEC is a consortium of faculty and health care educators dedicated to global health education in health professions schools and residency programs, based in the US. They provide teaching modules on a wide variety of topics free on the web, which students can review either on their own or in instructor-led courses.

Global Health learning outcomes for medical students in the UK
(3 pages - free registration required)
www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%2961582-1/fulltext
The Global Health Learning Outcomes Working Group, comprised of 12 UK academics, students, and representatives of civil society with expertise in global health and medical education, developed a list of recommended global health competencies for medical students.

Global Health Textbooks
http://globalhealtheducation.org/resources_OLD/Documents/Both%20Students%20And%20Faculty/GHEC_Textbook_Review_Project_Nov2010.pdf
(24 Seiten)
A review of 5 english textbooks. 

TALC (Teaching Aids at Low Cost)
www.talcuk.org/about.htm  Low-priced books and teaching aids (including all MSF guidelines) for work in low-income countries.

Global Health Readings
karengrepin.com/2009/05/best-readings-in-global-health.html
A personal blog presenting a reading list of books related to Global Health.

Global Health Videos
globalhealth.stanford.edu/resources/videos.h
Video links provided by the International Health Interest Group on the Stanford University website, organized by book chapters of Richard Skolnik’s book “Essentials in Global Health” (including Principles and Goals of Global Health, Health Determinants and Measurements, Ethical and Human Rights Concerns, Introduction to Health Systems, Culture and Health, Environment and Health, Women’s Health, Child Health, Humanitarian Emergencies, Technology, etc).

5. GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH

Global Health Watch 1. An Alternative World Health Report
Global Health Watch Zed Books, London 2005.
(Book)
http://www.ghwatch.org/sites/www.ghwatch.org/files/ghw.pdf
Global Health Watch 2005–2006 is a collaboration of leading popular movements and non-governmental organizations comprising civil society activists, community groups, health workers and academics. It has compiled this alternative world health report – a hard-hitting, evidence-based analysis of the political economy of health and health care – as a challenge
to the major global bodies that influence health. Its monitoring of institutions including the World Bank, the World Health Organization and UNICEF reveals that while some important initiatives are being taken, much more needs to be done to have any hope of meeting the UN’s health-related Millennium Development Goals.

Global Health Watch 2. An Alternative World Health Report,
Global Health Watch Zed Books, London 2008.
(Book)
www.ghwatch.org/sites/www.ghwatch.org/files/ghw2.pdf
The Global Health Watch is a call to all health workers to broaden and strengthen the global community of health advocates who are taking action on global ill-health and inequalities, and their underlying political and economic determinants.
In an increasingly integrated, globalised world with new cross-border threats to health, widening disparities in both health and access to health care, and an unacceptable level of human suffering and premature mortality in developing countries, civil society actors are asking, why is so little progress being made by global health actors?
Not only is Global Health Watch 2 an educational resource for health professionals and activists, it makes clear the need for global health advocates to engage in lobbying many key actors to do better and to do more, whilst resisting those that do harm.
                    Contents of the GHW2
                    Introduction
                    A: Alternative Paradigm for Development
                    B: Health Care Sector
                    1. Health systems advocacy 2. Mental Health: Culture, Language and Power                     3. Access to healthcare for migrants and asylum seekers 4. Prisoners 5. Medicines
                    C: Beyond health care
                    1. Carbon Trading and Climate Change 2. Terror, war and health 3. Reflections on                     Globalization, Trade, Food and Health 4. Urbanisation 5. The Sanitation and Water
                    Crisis 6. Oil Extraction and Health in the Niger Delta 7. Humanitarian Aid
                    8. Education - update
                    D: Watching
                    1. Global Health Governance 2. Government Aid 3. TNC’s

Global Health Watch 3, An Alternative World Health Report
Global Health Watch Zed Books, London 2011.
(Book)
www.ghwatch.org/sites/www.ghwatch.org/files/global%20health%20watch%203.pdf
Global Health Watch 3 is built up on the previous two and contains the following broad chapters:
Section I: The Global Political and Economic Architecture
Section II: Health Systems, Current Issues and Debates
Section II: Beyond Health Care
Section IV: Watching
Section V. Resistance, Actions and Change

GandHI. Hier and dort – Einblicke in die globale Gesundheit [DE]
(Book)
http://bvmd.de/fileadmin/SCOPH/GandHI/Hier_und_Dort/Hier_und_Dort_1.5_20091206.pdf
From the Globalization and Health Initiative an introduction on the main topics about globalization and health.

Causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice.
Donohoe M.
Social Science and Medicine. 2003; 56(3): 573-87.
(11 pages)
http://phsj.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/ssm-env-paper.pdf
Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations results from, operatingin consort. This paper describes the national and global causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. Causes include overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption, maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars. Consequences include increased poverty, overcrowding, famine, weather extremes, species loss, acute and chronic medical illnesses, war and human rights abuses, and an increasingly unstable global situation that portends Malthusian chaos and disaster.
Because of their scientific training, and due to their privileged socioeconomic status, physicians are in a unique position to recognize these phenomena and to act at all levels, from interactions with their patients, to volunteerism, to service and intervention in areas of great need, to direct political activism and involvement.

Orms GH
(Working paper)
http://www.itg.be/itg/Uploads/Volksgezondheid/wpshsop/SHSOP%20WP%202%20Ooms%20Global%20Health.pdf
The Working Paper Series of the Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy aims to present
innovative work in the domain of policy, management and organisation of health services and systems in
low‐ and middle‐income countries. It provides a platform to publish and disseminate empirical research and
conceptual work that is not constrained by journal formats.

GERMAN CONTEXT
(Booklet, 40 pages)
Medico International – Stichwort Gesundheit: Sonderheft zur Weltgesundheit
http://www.medico.de/material/artikel/stichwort-gesundheit/4230/
Dieses Sonderheft zur Weltgesundheit bleibt nicht bei der Beschreibung der Katastrophe stehen. Medico will die Unternehmungen zur Abhilfe sichtbar machen und das Gesundheits-Netzwerk beschreiben, in dem sich die Organisation bewegt. Dessen Akteure haben alle ein menschen­rechtliches Verständnis von Gesundheit und beharren auf der Notwendigkeit und Möglichkeit von Gleichheit.

6. HEALTH SYSTEM, POLICY AND FUNDING

From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy.
Italian Global Health Watch
Social Medicine 2008; 3: 34-46.
(13 pages)
http://journals.sfu.ca/socialmedicine/index.php/socialmedicine/article/viewArticle/186
This paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

Equity and health sector reforms: can low-income countries escape the medical poverty trap?
Whitehead M, Dahlgren G, Evans T. Lancet. 2001; 358(9284): 833-6. (4 pages - free registration required) www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2801%2905975-X/fulltext This article shows how international health sector reforms, implemented by institutions as the World Bank, have become a real medical poverty trap for low-income countries.

Global health funding: how much, where it comes from and where it goes.
McCoy D, Chand S, Sridhar D.
Health Policy and Planning 2009; 24(6): 407-07.
(9 pages)
http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/407.abstract
This paper describes the state of global heath finance, taking into account government and private sources of finance, and raises and discusses a number of policy issues related to global health governance.

Implementing equity: the commission on social determinats of health.
Birch M.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2009;87:3
(1 page)
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/87/1/08-061978.pdf
Brief synthesis of public health actors.

Primary health care. Now more than ever. World Health Report 2008
Geneva, WHO - World Health Organization 2008
(112 pages)
http://www.who.int/whr/2008/en/index.html
WHO 2008 report on the importance to rediscover Alma Ata principles.

Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. World Health Report 2010
Geneva, WHO – World Health Organization 2010
(102 pages)
http://www.who.int/whr/2010/en/index.html
WHO report 2010 on the importance of universal health coverage. 

The Impact of Corporate Practices on Health: Implications for Health Policy.
Freudenberg N, Galea S. JPHP  2008; 29:86–104.
(13 pages)
http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/journal/v29/n1/full/3200158a.html
The article describes through three examples (including the Vioxx one) the link between health and multinational companies.

Bad Pharma: How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients.
Ben Goldacre, 2012
(Book)
goo.gl/2KjeC
Ben Goldacre puts the $600bn global pharmaceutical industry under the microscope. What he reveals is a fascinating, terrifying mess. Doctors and patients need good scientific evidence to make informed decisions. But instead, companies run bad trials on their own drugs, which distort and exaggerate the benefits by design. When these trials produce unflattering results, the data is simply buried. All of this is perfectly legal. In fact, even government regulators withhold vitally important data from the people who need it most. Doctors and patient groups have stood by too, and failed to protect us. Instead, they take money and favours, in a world so fractured that medics and nurses are now educated by the drugs industry. Patients are harmed in huge numbers. Ben Goldacre is Britain's finest writer on the science behind medicine, and 'Bad Pharma' is a clear and witty attack, showing exactly how the science has been distorted, how our systems have been broken, and how easy it would be to fix them.

Conflicts of interest and policy implementations Reflections from the fields of health and infant feeding.
Judith Richter
International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN)
(10 pages)
http://www.gifa.org/files/conflictsofi.pdf
The document describes the relationship between the conflict of interest and health policies, especially those related with children’s nutrition.

Following the script: How drug reps make friends and influence doctors.
Fugh-Berman A, Ahari S.
Plos Medicine, 2007; 4: 4.
(5 pages)
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040150
The article analyzes the figure of drug representative and illustrates the techniques used to influence doctor’s decision.

Selling sickness: the pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering,
Moynihan R,  Heath I, Henry D.
BMJ 2002; 324:886-891
(6 pages)
http://www.bmj.com/content/324/7342/886.1.full.pdf
A book about the practice of disease mongering, which consists of widening the diagnostic boundaries of illnesses, and promoting public awareness of such, in order to expand the markets for those who sell and deliver treatments.

Disease Mongering Collection
PLoS Medicine
http://www.ploscollections.org/article/browseIssue.action?issue=info:doi/10.1371/issue.pcol.v07.i02
A collection of articles about disease mongering.

Conflict of Interest between physicians and pharmaceutical industries.
Center for International Health.
Alma mater studiorum, Bologna University, Department of medicine and public health.
(PowerPoint, 35 slides)
http://www.csiunibo.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&Itemid=68&gid=83&orderby=dmdatecounter&ascdesc=DESC
Powerpoint with the main aspects of conflicts of interest.

Global health: Great expectations.
Brown H.
BMJ. 2007; 334(7599): 874-6.
(3 pages)
http://www.bmj.com/content/334/7599/874.full
A brief critic to the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation.

Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on. Free online book by LSHTM authors, 2011.
(Book)
http://ghlc.lshtm.ac.uk/
Why do some low and middle income countries manage to achieve good health outcomes while others fail? What factors drive improvements in the health system and in access to primary health care? How can we act on the social determinants of health in cash-strapped economies? This book draws on a series of new case studies from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Tamil Nadu and Thailand providing fresh insights into the role of effective institutions, innovation and country ownership in catalysing improvements in health.

Richard Skolnik – Global Health 101, 2nd edition
(Book)
http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763797515/97515_FMxx_Skolnik.pdf

GERMAN CONTEXT

Quality in and Equality of Access to Healthcare Services – Country Report for Germany.
Riesberg, Annette; Wörz, Markus
European Commission (eds.), 2008
(Country report)
http://www.ehma.org/files/healthquest_germany_en.pdf
About access to health care services in Germany. 

Aktionsbündnis gegen Aids
http://www.aids-kampagne.de/startseite/
Das Aktionsbündnis gegen Aids tritt dafür ein, dass Deutschland seiner Verantwortung als wirtschaftlich privilegierter Industriestaat gerecht wird und einen angemessenen Beitrag für die Bewältigung der globalen HIV-Epidemie leistet.

7. MIGRATION AND HEALTH

Good practices on health and migration in the EU
European council, Lisbon conference final draft, 2007.
(Final draft, 33 pages)
http://www.portaldasaude.pt/NR/rdonlyres/6D6B5694-B7BA-4459-94F0-58DDC40A97A1/0/Relatorio.pdf
The aim of this report is to discuss issues of health and migration with reference to some oAbout undocumented migrant in Germany.f the interventions that EU member states have found to be effective in the field.

MigrantHealthNet (Info page) mighealth.net/index.php/Main_Page The MIGHEALTHNET project aims to stimulate the exchange of knowledge on migrant and minority health through the development of interactive data bases in each of the participating countries.

Anthropology in the clinic: the problem of cultural competency and how to fix it. Kleinman A, Benson P. PLoS Medicine. 2006; 3(10): e294. (4 pages) www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030294 This article gives a definition of culture and shows how cultural factors can influence clinical relantionship. What is important is not to know all cultures, but to understand what a specific illness means for a patient. The implementation of the principles of patient-centered care is needed.

Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education. Green AR, Betancourt JR, Carrillo JE. Academic Medicine. 2002; 77(3): 193-7. (5 pages) journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Abstract/2002/03000/Integrating_Social_Factors_into_Cross_cultural.3.aspx Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures.

Confronting "culture" in medicine's "culture of no culture".
Taylor JS.
Academic Medicine. 2003; 78(6): 555-9.
(5 pages)
http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/fulltext/2003/06000/confronting__culture__in_medicine_s__culture_of_no.3.aspx
The author presents reflections from medical anthropology on the institutional culture of medicine and medical education, which sees itself as a ‘‘culture of no culture’’ and which systematically tends to foster static and essentialist conceptions of ‘‘culture’’ as applied to patients. Physicians’ medical knowledge is no less cultural for being real, just as patients’ lived experiences and perspectives are no less real for being cultural.

PICUM's Main Concerns about the Fundamental Rights of Undocumented Migrants in Europe. 
PICUM – Platform for International Cooperation for Undocumented Migrants (2010).
(Report)
http://picum.org/picum.org/uploads/publication/Annual%20Concerns%202010%20EN.pdf
About fundamental rights of undocumented migrants in Europe.

Access to Health Care for Undocumented Migrants in Europe.
PICUM – Platform for International Cooperation for Undocumented Migrants (2007).
(Report)
http://picum.org/picum.org/uploads/file_/Access_to_Health_Care_for_Undocumented_Migrants.pdf
About access to health care for undocumented migrant in Europe

GERMAN CONTEXT

Migration und Gesundheit. Schwerpunktbericht der Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes. [DE]
Razum, Oliver et al.
Robert Koch-Institute (ed.). Berlin, 2008
(135 pages)
http://www.gbe-bund.de/gbe10/owards.prc_show_pdf?p_id=11713&p_sprache=D 
The first detailed report on migration and health in Germany.

MigHealthNet Länderbericht Deutschland. [DE]
Berens E, Spallek J, Razum O.
MigHealthNet (2008)
(Report)
http://mighealth.net/de/images/1/19/L%C3%A4nderbericht_MIGHEALTHNET_Deutschland.pdf
A little report about migrant health in Germany.

Policies on Health Care for Undocumented Migrants in EU27 Country Report Germany
Healthcare in nowhereland, 2010
(Report)
www.nowhereland.info
About undocumented migrant in Germany.

8. DEVELOPMENT AID

United Nations Millennium Development Goal Indicators millenniumindicators.un.org/unsd/mdg/default.aspx The official data, definitions, methodologies and sources of the UN‘s Millennium Development Goals, updated frequently with current statistics and documents.

Dambisa Moyo. Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa
(Dead Aid: Warum Entwicklungshilfe nicht funktioniert und was Afrika besser machen kann.
Tolkemitt bei Zweitausendeins; Auflage: 1 (20. Juni 2011) 
(Book) In Dead Aid, Dambisa Moyo describes the state of postwar development policy in Africa today and unflinchingly confronts one of the greatest myths of our time: that billions of dollars in aid sent from wealthy countries to developing African nations has helped to reduce poverty and increase growth. Debunking the current model of international aid promoted by both Hollywood celebrities and policy makers, Moyo offers a bold new road map for financing development of the world’s poorest countries that guarantees economic growth and a significant decline in poverty—without reliance on foreign aid or aid-related assistance.
Farmer P. Pathologies of power. : Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press, 2003
(Book)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508789/pdf/amjph00010-0028.pdf     (Abstract)
In this book  (and especially in the first chapter), Farmer gives a definition of structural violence and shows how it harms the health of billions of people who are so distant that they are glibly and uncomprehendingly referred to as living in a "third world."

Paul Collier. The Bottom Billion Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (April 27, 2007)
(Book)
goo.gl/VSUSg
The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It is a 2007 book by Paul Collier, Professor of Economics at Oxford University, exploring the reasons why impoverished countries fail to progress despite international aid and support.

Jeffrey D. Sachs. The End of Poverty: Economic possibilities for our time. Penguin Group, 2005
(Book)
http://de.scribd.com/doc/38483331/The-End-of-Poverty-Economic-Possibilities-for-Our-Time-Jeffrey-Sachs
In the book, Sachs argues that extreme poverty - defined by the World Bank as incomes of less than 1 dollar per day - can be eliminated globally by the year 2025, through carefully planned

9. WEB RESOURCES

Unnaturalcauses.org
http://www.unnaturalcauses.org/
Website focused on inequalities in health in the United States. It’s possible to find video clips showing the mechanisms of generation of inequalities.

Equality Trust
http://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/
The Equality Trust aims to reduce income inequality through a programme of public and political education designed to achieve:

  • a widespread understanding of the harm caused by income inequality
  • public support for policy measures to reduce income inequality
  • the political commitment to implementing such policy measures

The website is rich of documents about inequalities in health

Global Health Education Consortium
http://globalhealtheducation.org
GHEC is a consortium of faculty and health care educators dedicated to global health education in health professions schools and residency programs. A wide variety of resources, developed by experts in global health, are available to support self-paced learning in the field.

People’s Health Movement
www.phmovement.org/en
People's Health Movement (PHM) is a global network of grassroots health activists, civil society organizations and academic institutions particularly from developing countries. Its main objective is “to promote the Health for All goal through an equitable, participatory and inter-sectoral movement and as a Rights Issue.”

International People’s Health University
www.phmovement.org/iphu
The International People's Health University aims to contribute to 'health for all' by strengthening people's health movements around the globe, by organizing and resourcing learning, sharing and planning opportunities for people's health activists, particularly from Third World countries.

Gapminder
www.gapminder.org
Website with many statistics and graphs. In the for teacher section it’s possible to find teaching material.

Woldmapper
www.worldmapper.org
Worldmapper is a collection of world maps, where territories are re-sized on each map according to the subject of interest.

Globalization101
www.globalization101.org/about/
Globalization101.org is an Internet resource offered by the Levin Institute to promote a greater understanding of globalization.

 DNDi. Drugs for neglected diseases initiative
http://www.dndi.org/index.php
Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) is a collaborative, patients’ needs-driven, non-profit drug research and development organization that is developing new treatments for neglected diseases that affects the world’s poor (in particular malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness - human African trypanosomiasis - , and Chagas disease.

Healthy skepticism
http://www.healthyskepticism.org/global
About misleading health information

Buko Pharma-Kampagne
http://www.bukopharma.de/english/index.html
BUKO Pharma-Kampagne was founded with the aim of examining the activities of the German pharmaceutical industry in Third World countries. Today it is one of the few organisations in Germany that has a critical look at the dark side of the drug market in the North and in the South. 

Section on Global Health on the website of the Society for medical anthropology
http://www.medanthro.net/research/cagh/index.html
 

SocMed: Education for Equity
http://www.socmedglobal.org/index.html 
SocMed advocates for and implements global health curricula founded on the study of social medicine. 

Globalization and Health
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/home/
Globalization and Health is an open access, peer-reviewed, online journal that provides an international forum for high quality original research, knowledge sharing and debate on the topic of globalization and its effects on health, both positive and negative.

WHO – World Health Organization - Global Health Atlas
http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/dataQuery/default.asp
World health data

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – Audio News Global Health podcasts
http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/news/audio/
(Podcasts)
This is a rich collection of short (about 5min) interviews on a range of global health topics. Ideal to download on iTunes and listen form an iPod in between.

Medico
http://www.medico.de/
Medico International struggles for the human right to the best possible access to good health.

Doctors for Global Health
http://www.dghonline.org/
Doctors for Global Health (DGH) is a private, not-for-profit organization promoting health, education, art and other human rights throughout the world. DGH is comprised of hundreds of health professionals, students, educators, artists, attorneys, engineers, retirees and others. Together we build long-term relationships between people and communities around the world to find effective solutions to social justice issues.

Verein demokratischer Ärztinnen und Ärzte
http://www.vdaeae.de/
Der vdää ist ein ärztlicher Berufsverband, der der sich als Alternative zu standespolitisch wirkenden Ärzteverbänden versteht.

Mein Essen zahl ich selber (MEZIS) Initiative unbestechlicher Ärztinnen und Ärzte
http://www.mezis.de/  
Initiative zum kritischen Umgang mit Pharma-gesponserter Weiterbildung und Pharmareferenten

Medical Humanitites
gmg-förderverein.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/inwei%C3%9F-Band1-2012_kompr.pdf Das Gießener Institut für Geschichte der Medizin hat eine Broschüre herausgegeben mit kreativ-künstlerischen Arbeiten vor allem von Studierenden. Darin werden kulturelle und soziale Dimensionen von Medizin untersucht.

10. ONLINE COURSES

Global Health 101 Web resources
http://www.jbpub.com/essentialpublichealth/skolnik/2e/
Web-based learning material to accompany the second edition of Skolnik’s Essentials of Global Health.

Medical Peace Work online courses
http://www.medicalpeacework.org/courses.html
The seven free Medical Peace Work courses are an introduction in violence prevention and peace building for doctors, nurses, public health workers, mental health practitioners, other health professionals, as well as students in these fields. In particular, they are meant for those who want to strengthen their peace and conflict competencies, intend to work for humanitarian, development, human rights, or medical peace organizations abroad or at home, or want to improve health outcomes for their patients and communities in violence-prone settings.

Global Health eLearning Center
http://www.globalhealthlearning.org
This resource, developed by the USAID Bureau of Global Health, provides internet-based courses that provide useful and timely continuing education for health professionals, offer state-of-the-art technical content on key public health topics and serve as a practical resource for increasing public health knowledge. There are dozens of topics, for example on antibiotic resistance, obstetric and newborn care, family planning, HIV stigma or tuberculosis.

An Introduction to Global Health
https://www.coursera.org/course/globalhealthintro
This free online 7-week course at coursera by Flemming Konradsen from University of Copenhagen gives an introduction to the most important challenges to human health facing the world today. Themes covered include global policies, health systems, changing disease patterns, IT and health, population dynamics, and health promotion. The course consists of lecture videos (8-14 minutes) with quiz questions, as well as homework readings.

Programming for Nutrition Outcomes
http://ble.lshtm.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=26
LSHTM has developed this free open-access educational resource, supported by the UK Department for International Development. This Master's-level module has been designed to explore the complicated problem of undernutrition, highlight its multi-sectoral causes and identify potential programmatic solutions. The module contains 17 sessions covering such topics as maternal and child nutrition, nutrition and infection, agriculture, climate change, and social protection for nutritional outcomes.

Free online Epi+Stats course by Harvard
https://www.edx.org/courses/HarvardX/PH207x/2012_Fall/about
Quantitative Methods in Clinical and Public Health Research is the online adaptation of material from the Harvard School of Public Health's classes in epidemiology and biostatistics.

Free carbon literacy online course
http://sd.defra.gov.uk/advice/public/nsppp/carbon-learning/
The Defra-led National Sustainable Public Procurement Programme has launched a new free carbon literacy e-learning resource, to develop awareness and understanding of the terminology and principles associated with the greenhouse effect and climate change. With a move towards consideration of carbon in procurement practices it is becoming increasingly important to understand the agenda and associated terminology.

Harvard University’s Justice course with Michael Sandel
http://www.justiceharvard.org/
What's the Right Thing To Do? Is torture ever justified? Would you steal a drug that your child needs to survive? Is it sometimes wrong to tell the truth? How much is one human life worth?
Watch the videos to hear Harvard professor Michael Sandel talk about justice, equality, democracy, and citizenship.  

Case Studies in Primary Health Care
http://ocw.jhsph.edu/index.cfm/go/viewCourse/course/casestudiesinphc/coursePage/index/
Free online course offered by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
“This course introduces students to the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries. As in clinical bedside teaching, we use real cases to help students develop problem-solving skills in practical situations. We also discuss participatory approaches in the organization and management of health services and other factors such as equity, socio-cultural change, environmental protection, and the process of community empowerment.”

GERMAN CONTEXT

MSF webinars
http://www.aerzte-ohne-grenzen.de/mitarbeiten/veranstaltungen-und-termine/06-webinare/index.html/?pc=xg&pk=WebinarAnkuendigung
Ärzte ohne Grenzen lädt medizinisches Personal, als auch technisch versierte Berufsgruppen, zu kostenfreien Webinaren ein.

11. NEWSLETTERS

Alma Mata Global Health Network – Newsletter
http://us4.campaign-archive2.com/?u=4b28577ebe8405ee65b01570c&id=63ebc62cae&e=e5b788ee94
UK based medical organisation focussing on Global Health issues and Global Health education for medical students and young doctors.

Health, Education and Social Protection (HESP) – News and Notes
http://german-practice-collection.org/en/links/newsletters/hesp-news-and-notes
This is the 2005 - 2012 Archive of the GIZ-supported bi-weekly Newsletter "Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes" that you can download from here and/or subscribe on the website. 

International Health Policies (IHP) – Newsletter
(free registration required)
http://e.itg.be/ihp/newsletter-sign/
International Health Policies; headlines in global health policies and reactions from global south experts.

12. JOBS INFO

Büro Führungskräfte zu Internationalen Organisationen
http://www.bfio.de/
Vermittelt Jobs in Internationalen Organisationen, u.a. über das Programm “Beigeordnete Sachverständige” für deutsche Hochschulabsolventen mit 1-4 Jahren Berufserfahrung und im Alter unter 32 Jahren.

Directory of development organizations
http://www.devdir.org/
Lists thousands of development organizations of all types and on all continents.

Foring – Forum für Internationale Gesundheit
http://www.foring.org/
Information on Jobs, workshops, courses, scholarships and events. Also provides a newsletter.

Job Opportunities in Global Health
http://globalhealth.ku.dk/opportunities/
An overview of jobs, internships and other opportunities for students and professionals pursuing a career within the field of global health, complied by the Copenhagen School of Global Health.