Kliniken & Institute … Institute Zentrum für… Virologie Forschung Schnitzler

Research Group Schnitzler

Paul Schnitzler, Prof. Dr. rer. nat.

Phone: +49 6221 56-5016, -35016
Fax: +49 6221 56-4551


Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are wide spread human pathogens which cause epidermal lesions. Several drugs are currently available for the management of HSV infections. Natural products like the Australian tea tree oil and peppermint oil are also quite effective against HSV as shown in plaque reduction assays. We analyse the mechanism of the virucidal effect of several essential oils on HSV in vitro. Since esssential oils are mixtures of many different natural compounds, we try to isolate the active virucidal compound against herpes simplex virus.

Selected Publications

Complete Publication List (PubMed)

Höcker B., Tabatabai J., Schneble L., Oh J., Thiel F., Pape L., Rusai K., Topaloglu R., Kranz B., Klaus G., Printza N., Yavascan O., Fichtner A., Krupka K., Bruckner T., Waldherr R., Pawlita M., Schnitzler P., Hirsch H.H., Tönshoff B. (2018) JC polyomavirus replication and associated morbidity in pediatric renal transplantation: an international CERTAIN registry study Ped. Nephrol. 33, 2343-2352

Höcker B., Schneble L., Murer L., Carraro A., Pape L., Kranz B., Oh J., Zirngibl M., Dello Strologo L., Büscher A., Weber L.T., Awan A., Pohl M., Bald M., Printza N., Rusai K., Peruzzi L., Topaloglu R., Fichtner A., Krupka K., Köster L., Bruckner T., Schnitzler P., Hirsch H.H., Tönshoff B. (2019). Epidemiology of and risk factors for BK polyomavirus replication and nephropathy in   pediatric renal transplant recipients: an international CERTAIN registry study. Transplantation, 103, 1224-1233

Grünvogel O., Colasanti O., Lee J.-Y., Klöss V., Belouzard S., Reustle A., Esser-Nobis K., Hesebeck-Brinckmann J., Mutz P., Hoffmann K., Mehrabi A., Koschny R., Vondran F.W.R., Gotthardt D., Schnitzler P., Neumann-Haefelin C., Thimme R., Binder M., Bartenschlager R., Dubuisson J., Dalpke A.H., Lohmann V. (2018). Secretion of hepatitis C virus replication intermediates dampens toll-like receptor 3 activation in hepatocytes. Gastroenterol. 154, 2237-2251
Cordts S.E., Schneble L., Schnitzler P., Wenzel J.J., Vinke T., Rieger S., Fichtner A., Tönshoff B., Höcker B. (2018) Prevalence, morbidity and therapy of hepatitis E virus infection in pediatric renal allograft recipients Ped. Nephrol. 33, 1215-1225
Höcker B., Aguilar M., Schnitzler P., Pape L., Bald M., König J., Marks S.D., Genc G., Büscher A., Kemper M.J., Billing H., Pohl M., Rieger S., Mankertz A., Krupka K., Bruckner T., Fichtner A., Tönshoff B. (2018)
Vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in paediatric renal transplant recipients and the impact of immunosuppressive therapyPed. Nephrol., 33, 897-910
Schnee S.V., Pfeil J., Ihling C.M., Tabatabai J., Schnitzler P. (2017). Performance of the Alere i RSV assay for point-of-care detection of respiratory syncytial virus in children. BMC Infect. Dis, 17: 767
Tabatabai J., Thielen A., Lehners N., Daeumer M., Schnitzler P. (2018) Respiratory syncytial virus A in haematological patients with prolonged shedding: premature stop codons and deletion of the genotype ON1 72-nucleotide-duplication in the attachment G gene J. Clin. Virol., 98, 10-17.
Höcker B., Aguilar M., Schnitzler P., Pape L., Dello Strologo L., Webb N.J.A. Bald M., Genc G.,   Billing H., König J., Büscher A., Kemper M.J., Marks S.D., Pohl M., Wigger M., Topaloglu R., Rieger S., Krupka K., Bruckne T., Fichtner A., Tönshoff B. (2018)Incomplete vaccination coverage in European children with end-stage kidney disease prior to renal transplantation. Ped. Nephrol., 33, 341-350
Sharifi-Rad J., Salehi B., Schnitzler P., Ayatollahi S.A., Kobarfard F., Fathi M., Eisazadeh M., Sharifi-Rad M. (2017) Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 1 to monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils of Sinapis arvensis L., Lallemantia royleana Benth., and Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.
Cell. Mol. Biol. 63, 42-47
Nusshag C., Osberghaus A., Baumann A., Schnitzler P., Zeier M., Krautkrämer E. (2017) Deregulation of levels of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 is associated with severe courses of hantavirus infection (2017)J. Clin. Virol. 94, 33-36
Schmitt M., Schmitt A., Wiesneth M., Hückelhoven A., Wu Z., Kuball J., Wang L., Schauwecker P., Hofmann S., Götz M., Michels B., Maccari B., Wuchter P., Mertens T., Schnitzler P.,    Döhner H., Ho A.D., Bunjes D.W., Dreger P., Schrezenmeier H., Greiner J. (2017)Peptide vaccination against cytomegalovirus (CMV) elicits both cellular and humoral    immune responses clearing the virus load after allogeneic stem cell transplantation even from a CMV seronegative donor. Theranostics, 7, 1705-1718
Peters R.M., Schnee S.V., Tabatabai J., Schnitzler P., Pfeil J. (2017)Evaluation of Alere™ i RSV for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection J. Clin. Microbiol, 55, 1032-1036 
Hoos J., Peters R.M., Tabatabai J., Grulich-Henn J., Schnitzler P., Pfeil J. (2017)Reverse-transcription isothermal loop-mediated amplification for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus directly from nasopharyngeal swabs. J. Virol. Meth., 242, 53-5
Radujkovic A., Schnitzler P., Ho A.D., Dreger P., Luft T. (2017)Low Vitamin D serum levels predict shorter survival following first-line azacitidine treatment in myelodysplastic Syndrome Clin. Nutrition, 36, 542-551
Fink S., Tsai M.-H., Schnitzler P., Zeier M., Dreger P., Wuchter P., Bulut O.C., Behrends U., Delecluse H.-J. (2017)The Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in the peripheral blood of transplant recipients does not accurately reflect the burden of infected cellsTransplant Intern., 30, 57-67

Harak C., Meyrath M., Romero-Brey I., Schenk C., Gondeau C., Schult P., Esser-Nobis K., Saeed       M., Neddermann P., Schnitzler P., Gotthardt D., Perez-del-Pulgar S., Neumann-Haefelin C., Thimme R., Meuleman P., De Francesco R., Rice C.M., Bartenschlager R., Lohmann V. (2016)
Tuning a cellular lipid kinase adapts hepatitis C virus to cell culture. Nature Microbiol., 19: 16247
Dörflinger S., Tabatabai J., Schnitzler P., Farah C., Rameil S., Sander P., Koromyslova A., Hansman GS (2016)Development of a nanobody-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of human norovirus
mSphere, 1, e00219-16
Dalpke A., Zimmermann S., Schnitzler P. (2016) Underdiagnosing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections as revealed by use of a respiratory multiplex PCR panel. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis, 86, 50-52
Krautkrämer E., Nusshag C., Baumann A., Schäfer J., Hofmann J., Schnitzler P., Klempa B., Witkowski P.T., Krüger D.H., Zeier M. (2016) Clinical characterization of two severe cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade genotype Sochi BMC Infect. Dis. 16: 67
Sadeghi M., Lahdou I., Opelz G., Mehrabi A., Zeier M., Schnitzler P., Daniel V. (2016)
IL-23 plasma level is strongly associated with CMV status and reactivation of CMV in renal transplant recipients. BMC Immunology, 17:35
Dubler S., Hofer S., Fischer M., Zimmermann S., Schnitzler P., Bruckner T., Weigand M.A., Frank U., Heininger A. (2016)Bacterial and viral contamination of breathing circuits after extended use – an aspect of patient safety?Acta Anaesthes. Scand., 60, 1251-1260
Lehners N., Tabatabai J., Prifert C., Wedde W., Puthenparambil J., Weissbrich B., Biere, B., Schweiger B., Egerer G., Schnitzler P. (2016)
Long-term shedding of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial epidemiology in patients with hematological disorders
PLoS ONE, 11, e0148258.
Höcker B., Zencke S., Pape L., Krupka K., Köster L., Fichtner A., Dello Strologo L., Guzzo I., Topaloglu R., Kranz B., König J., BaldM.,Webb N.J.A., Noyan A., Dursun H., Marks S., Yalcinkaya F., Thiel F., Billing H., Pohl M., Fehrenbach H., Schnitzler P., Bruckner T., Ahlenstiel-Grunow T., Tönshoff B. (2016)
Impact of everolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy on cytomegalovirus replication and disease in pediatric renal transplantation. Am. J. Transplant., 16, 921-929
Poelman R., Schuffenecker I., van Leer-Buter C., Josset L., Niesters H.G.M., Lina B., and the ESCV-ECDC EV-D68 studygroup (2015)
European surveillance for enterovirus D68 during the emerging North-American outbreak in 2014
J. Clin. Virol., 71, 1-9

Dondog B., Schnitzler P., Michael K.M., Clifford G., Franceschi S., Pawlita M., Waterboer T. (2015)
Hepatitis C Virus seroprevalence in Mongolian women assessed by a novel multiplex antibody detection assayCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 24, 1360-1365.

Sadeghi M., Lahdou I., Ettinger J., Heidary Navid M., Daniel V., Zeier M., Hofmann J., Opelz G., Schnitzler P. (2015)Association of low serum TGF-β level in hantavirus infected patients with severe disease
BMC Immunol., 16:19

Hahn M., Schnitzler P., Schweiger B., Kunz C., Ho A.D., Goldschmidt H., Schmitt M. (2015)
Efficacy of single versus boost vaccination against influenza virus in patients with multiple myeloma
Haematologica, 100: e285

Gauss A., Rosenstiel S., Schnitzler P., Hinz U., Rehlen T., Kadmon M., Ehehalt R., Stremmel W.,  Zawierucha A. (2015)Intestinal cytomegalovirus infection in patients hospitalized for exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease: a 10-year tertiary referral center experience
Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 27, 712-720

Tappe D., Nachtigall S., Kapaun A., Schnitzler P., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J. (2015) Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014 Emerg. Infect. Dis., 21, 911-913

Astani A., Albrecht U., Schnitzler P. (2015) Piroxicam inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro Pharmazie, 70, 331-336

Eckerle I., Kapaun A., Junghanss T., Schnitzler P., Drosten C., Jänisch T. (2015) Dengue virus serotype 3 infection in traveler returning from West Africa to Germany Emerg. Infect. Dis., 21, 175-177.

Aichinger E., Schnitzler P., Heeg K., Dederer W., Benz M., Buda S., Dreger P., Egerer G., Eisenbach C., Geis S., Haas W., Ho A.D., Lehners N., Neben K., Pfaff G., Schwertz R., Thalheimer M., Wagner-Wiening C., Weißbrich B., Buchholz U. (2014) Contributing and terminating factors of a large outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infections in an adult hematology unit Plos Current Outbreaks, doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.3bc85b2a508d205ecc4a5534ecb1f9be

Sadeghi M., Lahdou I., Mehrle S., Heidary Navid M., Daniel V., Zeier M., Schnitzler P., Opelz G., Terness P. (2014) Increased serum kynurenine level is associated with severity of kidney injury in Puumala hantavirus infection J. Virol. Antivir. Res., 3: 4, doi: 10.4172/2324-8955.1000130.

Protzer U., Böhm F., Longerich T., Seebach J., Heidary Navid M., Friemel J., Marques-Maggio E., Bawohl M., Heikenwalder M., Schirmacher P., Dutkowski P., ClavienP.-A., Schemmer P., Schnitzler P., Gotthardt D., Müllhaupt B., Weber A. (2014) Molecular detection of hepatitis E-Virus (HEV) in liver biopsies after liver transplantation Mod. Pathol., 214, 1-10.

Tabatabai J., Prifert C., Pfeil J., Grulich-Henn J., Schnitzler P. (2014) Novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genotype ON1 predominates in Germany during winter season 2012-13 Plos ONE, 9, e109191

Pfeil J., Tabatabai J., Sander A., Ries M., Grulich-Henn J., Schnitzler P. Screening for respiratory syncytial virus and isolation strategies in children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection Medicine, 93, e144

Astani A., Heidary Navid M., Schnitzler P. (2014) Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract Phytother. Res., 28, 1547-1552.

Tabatabai J., Namakhoma I., Tweya H., Phiri S., Schnitzler P., Neuhann F. (2014) Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy - a qualitative study at Lighthouse Clinic Lilongwe/Malawi Glob. Health Action, 7, 24795

Roos K., Gotthardt D., Giese T., Schnitzler P., Stremmel W., Czock D., Eisenbach C. (2014) Pharmacodynamic monitoring of immunosuppressive effects indicates reduced cyclosporine activity during telaprevir therapy Liver Transplant., 20, 1106-1117

Tabatabai J., Wenzel J.J., Soboletzki M., Flux C., Heidary Navid M., Schnitzler P. (2014) First case report of an acute hepatitis E subgenotype 3c infection during pregnancy in Germany J. Clin. Virol., 61, 170-172

Heidary Navid M., Laszczyk-Lauer M., Reichling J., Schnitzler P. (2014) Pentacyclic triterpenes in birch bark extract inhibit early step of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication Phytomedicine, 21, 1273-1280.

Roos K., Gotthardt D., Giese T., Schnitzler P., Stremmel W., Czock D., Eisenbach C. (2014) Pharmacodynamic monitoring of immunosuppressive effects indicates reduced cyclosporine activity during telaprevir therapy Liver Transplant., 20, 1106-1117

Astani A., Schnitzler P. (2014) Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro Iran. J. Microbiol., 6, 359-365

Ronellenfitsch S., Tabatabai J., Böttcher S., Diedrich S., Frommhold D., Schubert-Bast S., Poeschl J., Schnitzler P. (2014) First report of a Chinese strain of coxsackie B3 virus infection in a newborn in Germany in 2011: a case report J. Med. Case Reports, 8, 164.

Rupp C., Herpel E., Schnitzler P., Zawierucha A.,  Zwickel P., Klute L., Kadmon M., Stremmel W., Gauss A. (2014) Protracted primary cytomegalovirus infection presenting as ileoanal pouchitis in a non- immunosuppressed patient: a case report J. Med. Case Rep., 8, 163

Sherwani S., Farleigh L., Agarwal N., Loveless, S., Robertson N., Hadaschik, E., Schnitzler P., Bugert J.J. (2014) Seroprevalence of molluscum contagiosum virus in German and UK populations PLoS ONE, 9, e88734

Krautkrämer E., Grouls S., Urban E., Schnitzler P., Zeier M. (2013) No gender-related differences in the severity of nephropathia epidemica, Germany BMC Infect. Dis., 13, 457

Heidary Navid M., Reichling J., Schnitzler P. (2013) Antiherpetic activity of the traditionally used complex essential oil Olbas Pharmazie, 68, 702-705

Gotthardt D.N., Senft J., Sauer P., Weiss K.H., Flechtenmacher C., Eckerle I., Schaefer Y., Schirmacher P., Stremmel W., Schemmer P., Schnitzler P. (2013) Occult CMV cholangitis as a potential cause of cholestatic complications after orthotopic liver transplantation? A study of cytomegalovirus DNA in bile Liver Transplant., 19, 1142-1150

Astani A., Zimmermann S., Hassan E., Reichling J., Sensch K.H., Schnitzler P. (2013) Antimicrobial activity of propolis extract against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates Pharmazie, 68, 695-701.

Hoffmann C., Buchholz L., Schnitzler P. (2013) Reduction of needlestick injuries in healthcare personnel at a university hospital using safety devices J. Occup. Med. Toxicol., 8:20, doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-8-20.

Lehners N., Schnitzler P., Geis S., Puthenparambil J., Benz M.A., Alber B., Luft T., Dreger P., Eisenbach C., Kunz C., Benner A., Buchholz U., Aichinger E., Frank U., Heeg K., Ho A.D., Egerer G. (2013) Risk factors and containment of a respiratory syncytial virus outbreak in a hematology and transplant unit Bone Marrow Transplant. Biol., doi: 10.1038/bmt.2013.94.

Esser-Nobis K., Romero-Brey I., Ganten T.M., Gouttenoire J., Harak C., Klein R., Schemmer P., Binder M., Schnitzler P., Moradpour D., Bartenschlager R., Polyak S.J., Stremmel W., Penin F., Eisenbach C., Lohmann V. (2013) Analysis of hepatitis C virus resistance to silibinin in vitro and in vivo points to a novel mechansism involving non-structural protein 4B. Hepatology, 57, 953-963.

Busse C., Heidary Navid M., Strubel A., Schnitzler P. Evaluation of a new recombinant antigen-based Virotech Treponema pallidum Screen ELISA for diagnosis of syphilis Clin. Lab., 59, 523-529

Lehners N., Geis S., Eisenbach C., Neben K., Schnitzler P. (2013) Changes in severity of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection from pandemic to first postpandemic season, Germany Emerg. Infect. Dis., 19, 748-755

Sharaf M., Amara A., Aboul-Enein A., Helmi S., Ballot A., Schnitzler P. (2013) Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad Pharmazie, 68, 376-380

Doesch A., Repp J., Hofmann N., Erbel C., Frankenstein L., Gleißner C., Schmidt C., Ruhparwar A., Zugck C., Schnitzler P., Ehlermann P., Dengler T., Katus H.A. (2012) Effects of oral Valganciclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus infection in heart transplant patients Drug Des. Dev. Ther., 6, 289-295

Schnitzler P. (2012) Respiratory syncytial virus infections in patients with hematological diseases.Hyg. Med. 37, 178-182

Gauss A., Wenzel J.J., Flechtenmacher C., Heidary Navid M., Eisenbach C., Jilg W., Stremmel W.,  Schnitzler P. (2012) Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in a leukemia patient with elevated transaminases: a case report J. Med. Case Rep., 6, 334


2008: Sebastian-Kneipp-Preis für Phytotherapie
2009: Holzschuh Preis für Komplementärmedizin
2015: Hessischer Naturheilkundepreis