Rapid antigen tests for the diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2 infection

Welcome! On this webpage we try to summarize the results of manufacturer independent evaluations of antigen detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) for SARS-CoV-2.

Background

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous Ag-RDTs have appeared on the market. On their homepage, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) provides a list of Ag-RDTs that fulfill certain minimum requirements. These requirements were jointly determined by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) and Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) to include a sensitivity of >70% and a specificity >97% (Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, 2021).

Manufacturer independent evaluations are important to provide an objective assessment of a test’s accuracy. Thus far only evaluations by the tests’ manufacturers themselves are summarized. Therefore, on this webpage we try to give an overview on the data published by manufacturer independent researchers. Using the linked calculator, it is also possible to convert the shown sensitivity and specificity into the concrete amount of true and false test results.

We are aware that some of the studies presented below differ widely in their methods. Thus, we advise especially for Ag-RDTs that have only been evaluated by a small amount of studies to judge their sensitivity not only based on clinical accuracy below, but also to take their limit of detection as found in analytical studies into consideration.

Author QUADAS Independent Sample condition Sample type Sample size Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI)
AAZ, COVID-VIRO®
Cassuto, N. G., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 234 96.9% (95% CI 83.8-99.9) 100% (95% CI 98.2-100)
Schwob, J.M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 248 84.1% (95% CI 76.9-89.7) 100% (95% CI 97.1*-100*)
               
Abbott, BinaxNOW™
Bachmann, C., M., et al low concern yes fresh AN 170 91.0% (95% CI 84.0-96.0) 94.0% (95% CI 85.0-98.0)
Shaikh, N., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 199 85.0% (95% CI 70.0-94.0) 91.0% (95% CI 86-95)
Bachmann, C., M., et al low concern yes fresh AN 170 82.0% (95% CI 73.0-88.0) 100% (95% CI 94.0-100)
Shah, M. M., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 2110 81.4% (95% CI 76.8-85.5) 99.6% (95% CI 99.2-99.8)
Pollock, N.R., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 2308 78.1% (95% CI 77.4-72.2) 99.4% (95% CI 99.0-99.7)
Frediani, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 297 74.0% (95% CI 64.0-82.0) 99.0% (95% CI 97.0-100)
Tinker, S., C., et al intermediate concern yes fresh AN 1540 60.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Pilarowski, G., et al. low concern no fresh AN 878 57.7% (95% CI 36.9*-76.7*) 100%* (95% CI 99.6*-100*)
Frediani, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 44 57.0% (95% CI 37.0-76.0) 100% (95% CI 79.0-100)
James, A. E., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 2339 56.5% (95% CI 48.7-64.5) 99.9% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Okoye, N.C., et al. intermediate concern unclear fresh MT 2645 53.3% (95% CI 39.1-67.1) 100% (95% CI 99.9-100)
Allan-Blitz, L.-T., et al. unclear yes fresh AN 18457 49.2% (95% CI 47.4-50.9) 98.8% (95% CI 98.6-98.9)
Tinker, S., C., et al low concern yes fresh AN 1540 20.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
               
Abbott, Panbio™ (NP sampling)
Domínguez Fernández, M., et al. intermediate concern unclear fresh unclear 30 95.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Johnson, C., et al. high concern yes banked unclear 100 94.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Alemany, A., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 919 93.4% (95% CI 91.5-95.0) 100% (95% CI 95.8-100)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 281 90.9% (95% CI 78.8-96.4) 99.2% (95% CI 97.0-99.8)
Merino-Amador, P., et al. low concern no fresh NP 958 90.5% (95% CI 87.5-93.6) 98.8% (95% CI 98.0-99.7)
Krüger, L.J., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 1034 87.5% (95% CI 79.8-92.5) 99.9% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Kolwijck, E., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 433 86.7% (95% CI 72.5-94.5) 100% (95% CI 98.8-100)
Schwob, J.M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 271 86.1% (95% CI 78.6-91.7) 100% (95% CI 97.6*-100*)
Stokes, W., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 1641 86.1% (95% CI 81.3-90.0) 99.9% (95% CI 99.5-100)
Berger, A., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 535 85.5% (95% CI 78.0-91.2) 100% (95% CI 99.1-100)
Fuster Escrivá, B., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 448 85.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Faíco-Filho, K.S., et al. low concern no fresh NP 127 84.0% (95% CI 75.0-93.8) 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-98.8)
Jääskeläinen, A.E., et al. high concern yes banked NP 190 83.0% (95% CI 76.1-88.1) 100% (not provided)
Eleftheriou, I., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 744 82.35% (95% CI 71.9-92.8) 100% (not provided)
Gremmels, H., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 208 81.0% (95% CI 69.0-89.9) 100% (95% CI 97.5-100)
Ngo Nsoga, M.T., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh OP 402 81.0% (95% CI 74.2-86.6) 99.1% (95% CI 96.9-99.9)
Yin, N., et al. low concern no banked NP 101 80.8% (95% CI 68.1-89.2) not provided
Albert, E., et al. low concern no fresh NP 412 79.6% (95% CI 67.0-88.8) 100% (95% CI 98.7-100)
Alemany, A., et al. intermediate concern yes banked MT 487 79.5% (95% CI 71.0-86.4) 98.7% (95% CI 96.9-99.6)
Van Honacker, E., et al. high concern no banked NP 98 78.9% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 23 76.9% (95% CI 46.2-95.0) 100% (not provided)
Fenollar, F., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 341 75.5% (95% CI 69.5-81.5) 94.9% (95% CI 91.2-98.6)
Reza, S., et al. intermediate concern no fresh NP 401 75.0% (95% CI 68.9-80.4) 100% (95% CI 97.8-100)
Linares, M., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 255 73.3% (95% CI 62.2-83.8) 100% (95% CI 98.1*-100*)
Gremmels, H., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 1367 72.6% (95% CI 64.5-79.9) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Halfon, P. et al. intermediate concern yes unclear NP 200 72.0% (95% CI 62.0-81.0) 99.0% (95% CI 95.0-100)
Nordgren, J., et al. intermediate concern no banked NP 286 71.8% (95% CI 64.0-78.7) 100% (95% CI 97.2-100)
Bulilete, O., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 1362* 71.4% (95% CI 63.2*-78.7) 99.8% (95% CI 99.4-99.9)
Carbonell-Sahuquillo, S., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 357 70.5% (95% CI 52.2-84.9) 100% (95% CI 98.9-100)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 80 70.0% (95% CI 53.3-82.9) not provided
Akingba, O.L., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 677 69.2% (95% CI 61.4-75.8) 99.0% (95% CI 98.8-99.2)
Del Vecchio, C., et al. low concern yes fresh unclear 1441 68.9% (95% CI 55.7-80.1) 99.9% (95% CI 99.6-100)
Favresse, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 67.7% (95% CI 57.4-76.9) 100% (95% CI 96.1-100)
Drevinek, P., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 591 66.4% (95% CI 59.9-72.2) 100% (95% CI 99.0-100)
L’Huillier, A.G., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 822 66.0% (95% CI 57.0-74.0) 100% (95% CI 100-100)
Ferté, T., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 695 63.5% (95% CI 49.0-76.4) 100% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Pérez-García, F., et al. high concern no banked NP 320 60.0% (95% CI 52.2-67.4) 100% (95% CI 97.6-100)
Pérez‐García, F., et al. unclear yes unclear NP 356 60.0% (95% CI 52.2-67.4) 100% (95% CI 98.0-100)
Agullo, V., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 652* 57.3% (95% CI 48.3-65.8) 99.8% (95% CI 98.8-100)
Wertenauer, C., et al low concern yes fresh NP 2215 56.8% (not provided) 99.9% (not provided)
Di Domenico, M., et al.  unclear yes fresh NP 433 56.0% (95% CI 38.1-72.6) 100% (95% CI 99.1-100)
Shaw, J., L., V., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 3007 54.5% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Schildgen, V., et al. high concern yes unclear BAL/TW 73 50.0% (95% CI 34.2*-65.8*) 77.4% (95% CI 58.9*-90.4*)
Krüger, L.J., et al. high concern yes fresh OP 74 50.0% (95% CI 1.3-98.7) 100% (95% CI 94.9-100)
Torres, I., et al. low concern no fresh NP 634 48.1% (95% CI 37.4-58.9) 100% (95% CI 99.3-100)
Wagenhäuser, I., et al. low concern yes fresh OP 1029 46.7% (95% CI 24.8-69.9) 99.6% (95% CI 99.0-99.9)
Villaverde, S., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 1620 45.4% (95% CI 34.1-57.2) 99.8% (95% CI 99.4-99.9)
Olearo, F., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear OP 184 44.6% (95% CI 34.3-55.3) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Caruana, G., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 41.2% (not provided) 99.5% (not provided)
Baro, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 38.6% (95% CI 29.1-48.8) 99.5% (95% CI 97-100)
Agullo, V., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh saliva 610 23.1% (95% CI 16.2-31.9) 100% (95% CI 99.0-100)
Muhi, S. low concern yes fresh NP 2413 not provided 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
               
Abbott, Panbio™ (nasal sampling)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh AN/MT 281 86.4% (95% CI 73.3-93.9) 99.2% (95% CI 97-99.8)
Abdulrahman, A., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 4183 82.1% (95% CI 79.2-84.8) 99.1% (95% CI 98.8-99.4)
Agullo, V., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 659 44.7% (95% CI 36.1-53.6) 100% (95% CI 99.1-100)
               
Access Bio, CareStart™ COVID-19 Antigen Test
Pollock, N.R., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1498 57.7% (95% CI 51.1-64.1) 98.3% (95% CI 97.5-99.0)
               
ACON, FIAflex™ SARS-CoV-2 Antigen FIA
Karon, B. S., et al. high concern no banked NP 347 88.3% (95% CI 83.1-92.1) 100% (95% CI 97.5-100)
               
ACON, Flowflex™ SARS-CoV-2
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 25 100% (95% CI 78.2-100) 100% (not provided)
Karon, B. S., et al. high concern no banked NP 347 77.7% (95% CI 71.4-82.9) 97.3% (95% CI 93.3-99.0)
               
AFIAS, COVID-19 Ag test
Baccani, I., et al. unclear no unclear NP 81 37.5% (95% CI 20.4-57.4) 100% (95% CI 95.7-100)
               
AMP, Rapid Test SARS-CoV-2 Ag
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 15 85.7% (95% CI 42.1-99.6) 100% (not provided)
Leixner, G., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 392 69.2% (95% CI 58.8-78.3) 99.7% (95% CI 98.1-100)
               
Assure Tech, Ecotest COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test          
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 494 97.7% (95% CI 92.8-99.4) compared to viral culture 97.5% (95% CI 95.2-98.8)
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 494 76.2% (95% CI 68.8-82.4) 97.3% (95% CI 94.-98.7)
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 318 75.7% (95% CI 66.5-83.5) 96.7% (95% CI 93.3-98.7)
               
Assut, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Detection Kit
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 31 71.4% (95% CI 29.0-96.3) 100% (not provided)
               
Becton, Dickinson and Company, BD Veritor™
Pekosz, A., et al. high concern no fresh NP 251 96.4% (95% CI 82.3-99.4)
compared to virus culture
98.7% (95% CI 96.1-99.7)
compared to virus culture
Van der Moeren, N., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP 351* 94.1% (95% CI 71.1-100) 100% (95% CI 98.9-100)
Marti, J.L.G., et al. unclear yes fresh AN unknown 93.8% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Yin, N., et al. low concern no banked NP 177 87.7% (95% CI 80.1-92.7) not provided
Christensen, K., et al. low concern no unclear AN 278 86.7% (95% CI 75.8-93.1) 99.5% (95% CI 97.4-99.9)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 80 77.5% (95% CI 61.1-88.6) not provided
Young, S., et al. intermediate concern no banked NP 251 76.3%* (95% CI 60.8*-87.0*) 99.5%* (95% CI 97.4*-99.9*)
Karon, B. S., et al. high concern yes banked NP 347 66.5% (95% CI 59.6-72.7) 100% (95% CI 97.5-100)
Kilic, A., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1384 66.4% (95% CI 57.0-74.9) 98.8% (95% CI 98.1-99.3)
Schuit, E., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 2678 63.9% (95% CI 57.4-70.1) 99.6% (95% CI 99.3-99.8)
Caruana, G., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 41.2% (not provided) 99.7% (not provided)
               
Becton, Dickinson and Company, Hometest
Stohr, J.J.J.M., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1604 48.9% (95% CI 41.6-56.2) 99.9% (95% CI 995.-100)
               
Beijing Savant Biotechnology, SARS-CoV-2 detection kit
Weitzel, T., et al. high concern no banked NP/OP 109 16.7% (95% CI 10.0-26.5*) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
               
Bioperfectus Technologies, Novel Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) Ag Rapid Test
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 21 80.0% (95% CI 44.4-97.5) 100% (not provided)
               
BioSpeedia COVIDSpeed-Antigen Test 
Reza, S., et al. intermediate concern no fresh NP 401 65.5% (95% CI 59.0-71.6) 100% (95% CI 97.8-100)
               
Biotime, COVID-19 Antigen Test Cassette
Seitz, T., et al. intermediate concern unclear fresh saliva 40 44.4% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
               
Bionote, NowCheck®
FINDdx low concern yes fresh AN  218 89.9% (95% CI 81.3-94.8) 98.6% (95% CI 94.9-99.6)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 218 89.9% (95% CI 81.3-94.8) 98.6% (95% CI 94.9-99.6)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 400 89.2% (95% CI 81.7-93.9) 97.3% (95% CI 94.8-98.6)
Onsongo, S., N., et al. low concern no fresh NP/OP 997 71.5% (95% CI 63.2-78.6) 97.5% (95% CI 96.2-98.5)
Rottenstreich, A., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 1326 55.6% (95% CI 21.2-86.3) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
               
Bio-Rad, Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test Cassette
Blairon, L., et al. high concern no banked NP 199 60.0% (95% CI 52.2-67.8) 100% (95% CI 100-100)
               
Biosynex, COVID-19 Antigen detection test            
Van Honacker, E., et al. high concern no banked NP 98 89.7% (not provided) 46.2% (not provided)
Jung, C., et al. intermediate concern no fresh NP 308 87.9% (95% CI 71.8-96.6) 98.5% (95% CI 96.3-99.6)
               
Biotical Health, SARS-CoV-2 Ag Card
Van Honacker, E., et al. high concern no banked NP 98 67.2% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Favresse, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 66.7% (95% CI 56.3-76.0) 98.8% (95% CI 94.1-99.9)
               
CerTest Biotec, SARS-CoV-2 one step test card
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 17 62.5% (95% CI 24.5-91.5) 100% (not provided)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 80 55.0% (95% CI 38.7-70.4) 97.5% (95% CI 85.3-99.9) 
Pérez-García, F., et al. high concern no banked NP 320 53.5% (95% CI 45.7-61.2) 100% (95% CI 97.6-100)
               
Coris BioConcept, COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip
Yin, N., et al. low concern no banked NP 135 80.0% (95% CI 69.2-87.7) not provided
Kanaujia, R., et al. low concern yes banked NP 484 72.0% (95% CI 65.0-78.2) 99.3% (95% CI 97.6-99.9)
Seynaeve, Y., et al intermediate concern yes banked NP 100 62.0% (95% CI 47.2-75.0) 100% (not provided)
Mertens, P., et al. intermediate concern no banked NP 328 57.6% (95% CI 48.7*-66.1*) 99.5% (95% CI 97.2*-100*)
Lambert-Niclot, S., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 138 50.0% (95% CI 39.5-60.5) 100% (95% CI 91.8-100)
Krüger, L.J., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear NP/OP 417 50.0% (95% CI 21.5-78.5) 95.8% (95% CI 93.4-97.4)
Ciotti, M., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 50 30.8% (95% CI 17.0-47.6) 100% (95% CI 71.5-100)
Scohy, A., et al. intermediate concern no fresh NP 148 30.2% (95% CI 21.7-39.9) 100% (95% CI 91.6*-100*)
Veyrenche, N., et al. high concern yes fresh NP 65 29.0% (95% CI 15.7-42.3) 100% (95% CI 83.2*-100*)
               
Denka, Quick Navi
Akashi, Y., et al. low concern no banked NP 96 87.5% (95% CI 79.2-93.4) not provided
Takeuchi, Y., et al. low concern no fresh NP 1186 86.7% (95% CI 78.6-92.5) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Takeuchi, Y., et al. unclear no fresh AN 862 71.5% (95% CI 58.3-84.1) 100% (95% CI 99.3-100)
               
DiaSorin, LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag
Fiedler, M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 182 92.0% (95% CI 85.0-96.0) cut-off: 22.8 TCID50/ml 81.0% (95% CI 69.0-89.0)
Fiedler, M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 182 91.0% (95% CI 84.0-95.0) cut-off: 23.6 TCID50/ml 83.0% (95% CI 72.0-91.0)
Hartard, C., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 378 84.8% (95% CI 74.4-95.2) 99.4% (95% CI 98.6-100)
Fiedler, M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 182 79.0% (95% CI 70.0-86.0) cut-off: 57.7 TCID50/ml 99.0% (95% CI 91.0-100)
Fiedler, M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 182 75.0% (95% CI 66.0-83.0) cut-off: 100 TCID50/ml 100% (95% CI 94.0-100)
Van der Moeren, N., et al.  low concern yes fresh AN/OP 248 73.0% (95% CI 61.3-82.7) 100% (95% CI 97.9-100)
Fiedler, M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 182 70.0% (95% CI 60.0-78.0) cut-off: 200 TCID50/ml 100% (95% CI 94.0-100)
Lefever, S., et al. low concern no banked NP 414 65.7% (95% CI 58.9-71.9) 100% (95% CI 97.8-100)
Salvagno, G., L., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 421 31.0% (95% CI 25.0-36.0) 100% (95% CI 97.0-100)
Osterman, A., et al intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP/URT 410 19.6% (95% CI 13.2-28.2) 99.7% (95% CI 98.2-100)
               
Dräger, Antigen Test SARS-CoV-2            
Osmanodja, B., et al. low concern no fresh NP/OP 379 88.6% (95% CI 78.7-94.9) 99.7% (95% CI 98.2-100)
Osmanodja, B., et al. low concern no fresh NP/OP 44 88.6% (not provided) not provided
Osmanodja, B., et al. low concern no fresh NP/OP 26 84.6% (not provided) not provided
               
EcoDiagnostica, COVID-19 Ag
Filgueiras, P.S., et al. unclear no fresh NP 150 69.0% (95% CI 55.0-81.0) 98.0% (95% CI 94.0-100)
               
EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen ELISA
Osterman, A., et al intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP/URT 410 17.8% (95% CI 11.6-26.1) 99.7% (95% CI 98.2-100)
               
Fujirebio, ESPLINE® SARS-CoV-2
Lindner, A. K., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1692 94.1% (95% CI 73.0-99.7) based on B.1.1.7 variant not provided
Takeda, Y., et al. high concern no unclear NP 162 80.7%* (95% CI 68.6*-89.6*) 100%* (95% CI 96.4*-100*)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 17 80.0% (95% CI 44.4-97.5) 100% (not provided)
FINDdx intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 723 78.6% (95% CI 70.1-85.2) 100% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Yokota, I., et al. high concern no banked NP 17 58.8%* (95% CI 32.9*-81.6*) not provided
Yokota, I., et al. high concern no banked saliva 17 23.5%* (95% CI 6.8*-49.9*) not provided
Sberna, G., et al. unclear yes unclear saliva 136 8.1% (95% CI 2.7-17.8) 100% (95% CI 95.1-100)
               
Fujirebio, Lumipulse® G SARS-CoV-2 Ag
Gili, A., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 226 100% (95% CI 96.0-100) 94.8% (95% CI 93.6-95.8)
Yokota, I., et al. high concern no banked NP 17 100% (95% CI 80.5*-100) not provided
Gili, A., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 1738 92.6% (95% CI 85.4-97.0) 90.8% (95% CI 84.5-95.2)
Baccani, I., et al. low concern no unclear NP 201 87.9% (95% CI 73.7-95.8) 95.8% (95% CI 92.0-98.1)
Matsuzaki, N., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 128 87.8% (not provided) 98.7% (not provided)
Yokota, I., et al. high concern no banked saliva 17 82.4%* (95% CI 56.6*-96.2*) not provided
Basso, D., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 234 81.6% (95% CI 71.0-89.5) 93.8% (95% CI 86.2-98.0)
Menchinelli, G., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 594 79.9% (95% CI 73.6-85.3) 99.3% (95% CI 97.8-99.8)
Asai, N., et al. low concern no unclear saliva 305 77.8% (not provided) 98.3% (not provided)
Asai, N., et al. low concern no unclear saliva 305 77.8% (not provided) 99.6% (not provided)
Asai, N., et al. low concern no unclear saliva 305 68.3% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Osterman, A., et al intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP/URT 410 52.3% (95% CI 43.0-61.6) 97.0% (95% CI 94.5-98.4)
Basso, D., et al. low concern yes fresh saliva 223 41.3% (95% CI 30.4-52.8) 98.6% (95% CI 95.0-99.8)
               
GSD NovaGen SARS-CoV-2 Ag Rapid Test
Blairon, L., et al. high concern no banked NP 199 59.9% (95% CI 51.5-67.2) 75.9% (95% CI 75.9-95.5)
               
Guangzhou Wondfo Biotech, 2019-nCoV Antigen Test
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 328 85.7% (95% CI 74.3-92.6) 100% (95% CI 98.6-100)
               
Humasis, COVID-19 Ag Test            
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 21 85.7% (95% CI 65.4-95.0) not provided
               
Healgen, Rapid COVID-19 Ag Test
Seynaeve, Y., et al intermediate concern yes banked NP 100 88.0% (95% CI 75.0-95.0) 100% (not provided)
Favresse, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 77.1% (95% CI 67.4-85.1) 96.7% (95% CI 90.8-99.3)
               
ichroma, COVID-19 AG
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 232 73.2% (95% CI 58.1-84.3) 100% (95% CI 98.0-100)
               
Innova Medical Group, INNOVA SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Qualitative Test
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 46 97.8% (95% CI 88.7-100)
compared to viral culture
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 200 89.0% (95% CI 81.4-93.8) 99.0% (95% CI 94.6-100)
Houston, H., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 242 86.4% (CI 95% 81.1-90.0) 95.1% (CI 95% 92.6-96.7)
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 23 82.6%* (not provided) not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 23 82.6%* (not provided) not provided
Peto, T., et al. unclear yes unclear unclear 6954 not provided 99.7% (not provided)
Peto, T., et al. unclear yes unclear unclear 198 78.8% (95% CI 72.4-84.3) not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 23 78.3%* (not provided)
based on B.1.1.7 variant
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 110 78.2 (95% CI 70.0-84.9) not provided
Peto, T., et al. unclear yes unclear unclear 223 70.0% (95% CI 63.5-75.9) not provided
Young, B.C., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 803 62.4% (95% CI 55.6-69.0) 100% (95% CI 99.4-100)
Peto, T., et al. unclear yes unclear unclear 372 57.5% (95% CI 52.3-62.6) not provided
García-Fiñana, M., et al. low concern yes fresh OP/AN 5869 40.0% (95% CI 28.5-52.4) 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-100)
Ferguson, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 720 3.23% (95% CI 0.6-15.59) 100% (95% CI 99.48-100)
               
JOYSBIO Biotechnology, COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test Kit
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 265 70.5% (95% CI 55.8-81.8) 99.1% (95% CI 96.8-99.8)
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 225 57.8% (95% CI 46.9-68.1) 98.5% (95% CI 94.8-99.8)
               
Lab Care Diagnostics, PathoCatch/ACCUCARE SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test        
Thakur, P., et al. low concern unclear fresh NP 677 34.5% (95% CI 24.5-45.6) 99.8% (95% CI 99.1-100)
               
Lepu Medical, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test Kit
Baro, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 45.5% (95% CI 35.6-55.8) 89.2% (95% CI 83.8-93.3)
               
Liming Bio, SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDT
Weitzel, T., et al. high concern no banked NP/OP 19 0.0% (95% CI 0.0-29.9) 90.0% (95% CI 59.6-98.2)
               
Lituo Biotechnology, COVID-19 antigen detection
kit (colloidal gold)
       
Terpos, E., et al. unclear yes fresh AN 359 91.7% (95% CI 85.1-95.6) 100% (95% CI 98.5-100)
Terpos, E., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 358 89.5% (95% CI 85.9-92.2) 99.6% (95% CI 98.2-99.9)
               
LumiraDx, COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test
Drain, P.K., et al. low concern no fresh AN 257 97.6% (95% CI 91.6-99.3) 96.6% (95% CI 92.7-98.4)
Drain, P.K., et al. low concern no fresh NP 255 97.5% (95% CI 87.1-99.0) 97.7% (95% CI 94.7-99.0)
Bianco, G., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 907 90.3% (95% CI 86.3-93.4) 92.1% (95% CI 89.7-94.1)
Fernández, M. D., et al unclear unclear unclear AN 46 87.5% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Caramello, V., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 149 86.6% (not provided) 88.5% (not provided)
Karon, B. S., et al. high concern no banked NP 347 83.2% (95% CI 77.4-87.8) 100% (95% CI 97.5-100)
Krüger, L.J., et al. low concern yes fresh MT 761 82.2% (95% CI 75.2-87.5) 99.3% (95% CI 98.3-99.7)
Micocci, M., et al. unclear no fresh NP 241 75.0% (not provided) 96.1% (not provided)
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 23 69.6% (95% CI 49.4-84.4) not provided
Leli, C., et al. unclear yes fresh AN 792 68.7% (95% CI 60.9-75.5) 95.2% (95% CI 93.1-96.7)
Blairon, L., et al. high concern no banked NP 199 61.1% (95% CI 53.3-68.9) 100% (95% CI 100-100)
Kohmer, N., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 50.0% (95% CI 38.1-61.9) 100% (95% CI 86.8-100)
Dierks, S., et al. unclear yes unclear NP 444 45.45% (95% CI 20.22-73.26) 99.54% (95% CI 98.17-99.88)
               
MEDsan®, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test
Olearo, F., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear OP 184 45.8% (35.5%-56.5%) 97.0% (91.5%-98.9%)
Wagenhäuser, I., et al. low concern yes fresh OP 3221 36.5% (95% CI 25.7-48.2) 99.6% (95% CI 99.3-99.8)
               
Microprofit Biotech, fluorecare® SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 21 91.7% (95% CI 61.5-99.8) 100% (not provided)
Lunca, C., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 47 57.5% (95% CI 40.9-73.0) 100% (95% CI 59.0-100)
               
Mizuho Medy Co., Ltd., Quick Chaser Auto SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Kit
Akashi, Y., et al. low concern no banked NP 96 87.5% (95% CI 79.2-93.4) not provided
Kurihara, Y., et al. unclear no fresh NP 1401 74.7% (95% CI 64.0-83.6) 99.8% (95% CI 99.5-100)
               
MOLOGIC, COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Test            
Lindner, A. K., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1692 91.1% (95% CI 85.9-94.5) based on B.1.1.7 variant not provided
FINDdx low concern yes fresh AN/NMT 665 90.6% (95% CI 85.6-94.0) 100% (95% CI 99.2-100)
Cubas-Atienzar, A., et al. low concern no fresh NP/throat 53 84.6% (95% CI 54.6-98.1) 100% (95% CI 91.2-100)
               
NAL von minden, NADAL
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 462 88.4% (95% CI 78.8-94.0) 99.2% (95% CI 97.8-99.7)
Ifko, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 280 74.4% (not provided) 95.3% (not provided)
Strömer, A., et al. high concern yes banked NP 124 73.1% (not provided) not provided
Wagenhäuser, I., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh OP 806 56.5% (95% CI 36.8-74.4) 100% (95% CI 99.5-100)
Kohmer, N., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 24.3% (95% CI 15.1-35.7) 100% (95% CI 86.8-100)
Dierks, S., et al. unclear yes unclear NP 215 14.29% (95% CI 1.94-58.35) 76.44% (95% CI 70.16-81.74)
               
NanoEntek, FREND™ COVID-19 Ag            
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 60 93.3% (95% CI 84.1-97.4) not provided
               
NDFOS, ND COVID-19 Ag Test            
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 191 70.1% (95% CI 58.6-80.0) 56.1% (95% CI 46.4-65.4)
               
Open-Acess SARS-CoV-2 Antigen-Detecting Lateral Flow Assay (OA-LFA)        
Bachmann, C., M., et al low concern no fresh AN 170 83.0% (95% CI 74.0-90.0) 97.0% (95% CI 91.0-100)
Bachmann, C., M., et al low concern no fresh AN 170 69.0% (95% CI 60.0-78.0) 97.0% (95% CI 88.0-100)
               
Orient Gene, Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test
Van Honacker, E., et al. high concern no banked NP 98 82.8% (not provided) 92.5% (not provided)
Nordgren, J., et al. intermediate concern no banked NP 332 79.5% (95% CI 72.3-85.6) 74.4% (95% CI 67.3-80.1)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 22 50.0% (95% CI 18.7-81.3) 100% (not provided)
               
Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test
Levett, P., N., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 528 84.2% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Favresse, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 83.3% (95% CI 74.4-90.2) 100% (95% CI 96.1-100)
Levett, P., N., et al. high concern yes banked unclear 24 83.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Matsuzaki, N., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 128 75.5% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
               
Panion & BF Biotech Inc, Vstrip® COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test
Tsai, S.C., et al unclear yes unclear NP 61 83.3% (95% CI 35.9-99.6) 98.2% (95% CI 90.3-99.9)
               
Phase Scientific International, INDICAID® COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Test
Chiu, R., et al. intermediate concern no fresh AN 349 85.3% (95% CI 75.6-91.6) 94.9% (95% CI 91.6-96.9)
Chiu, R., et al. intermediate concern no fresh AN 22994 84.2% (95% CI 69.6-92.6) 99.9% (95% CI 99.9-100)
Chiu, R., et al. intermediate concern no fresh AN 349 82.7% (95% CI 72.6-89.6) 96.4% (95% CI 93.4-98.0)
               
Precision Biosensors, Exdia COVID-19 Ag
Caruana, G., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 48.3% (not provided) 99.5% (not provided)
               
Premier Medical Corporation, Sure Status COVID-19 Antigen Card Test
Lindner, A. K., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1692 93.4% (95% CI 85.5-97.2) based on B.1.1.7 variant not provided
               
PRIMA, COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test            
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 50 66.0% (95% CI 52.2-95.0) not provided
               
QUIDEL, Sofia SARS Antigen FIA
Porte, L., et al. high concern no banked NP/OP 64 93.8% (95% CI 79.9-98.3) 96.9% (95% CI 84.3-99.4)
Bachmann, C., M., et al low concern yes fresh AN 170 86.0% (95% CI 77.0-92.0) 96.0% (95% CI 89.0-99.0)
Harris, D. T., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 885 82.3% (not provided) 98.2% (not provided)
Jääskeläinen, A.E., et al. high concern yes banked NP 188 80.0% (95% CI 73.3-86.0) 100% (not provided)
Beck, E.T., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 346 77.0% (95% CI 64.5*-86.9*) 99.6% (95% CI 98.1*-100*)
Herrera, V., et al. unclear yes unclear unclear 1172 76.8% (95% CI 72.6-80.5) 99.2% (95% CI 98.2-99.7)
Smith, R., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 2887 76.6% (95% CI 71.0-82.0) 99.7% (95% CI 99.0-100)
Bachmann, C., M., et al low concern yes fresh AN 170 74.0% (95% CI 64.0-82.0) 98.0% (95% CI 91.0-100)
Marti, J.L.G., et al. unclear yes fresh MT 427 72.0% (not provided) 99.0% (not provided)
Bornemann, L., et al. high concern yes fresh NP 1404 57.1% (not provided) 99.3% (not provided)
Harris, D. T., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1525 not provided 100% (not provided)
               
RapiGEN, Biocredit Covid-19 Antigen Detection Kit
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 106 100% (95% CI 76.8-100)
compared to virus culture
67.4% (95% CI 56.8-76.8)
compared to virus culture
Shrestha, B., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 113 85.0% (95% CI 71.7*-93.8*) 100% (95% CI 94.6*-100*)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 476 74.4% (95% CI 65.8-81.4) 99.0% (95% CI 97.2-99.6)
Abusrewil, Z., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 39 62.5% (95% CI 35.4-84.4) 100% (not provided)
Weitzel, T., et al. high concern no banked NOP 109 62.0% (95% CI 51.0-71.9) 100% (95% CI 88.7-100)
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 106 56.4% (95% CI 44.7-67.6) 100% (95% CI 87.7-100)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh ONP 1239 52% (95% CI 33.5-70.0) 100% (95% CI 99.7-100)
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 23 39.1% (95% CI 22.2-59.2) not provided
Schildgen, V., et al. high concern yes unclear BAL/TW 73 33.3% (95% CI 19.6*-49.6*) 87.1% (95% CI 70.2*-94.6*)
Kenyeres, B., et al. high concern yes fresh NP 37 8.11% (not provided) not provided
               
R-Biopharm, RIDA®QUICK SARS-CoV-2 Antigen
Toptan, T., et al. intermediate concern no banked unclear 67 77.6% (95% CI 64.7*-87.5*) 100% (95% CI 66.4*-100*)
Toptan, T., et al. unclear no banked NP/OP 70 50.0% (95% CI 31.9*-68.1*) 100% (95% CI 90.8*-100*)
Kohmer, N., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 39.2% (95% CI 28.0-51.2) 96.2% (95% CI 80.4-99.9)
               
Roche, Elecsys® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test            
Iqbal, B., et al. intermediate concern no banked NP 170 72.4% (95% CI 62.4-78.8) 95.0% (95% CI 83.0-99.4)
Nörz, D., et al. intermediate concern no banked NP/OP 3139 60.2% (95% CI 55.2-65.1) 99.9% (95% CI 99.6-100)
Osterman, A., et al high concern yes banked NP/OP/URT 410 31.4% (95% CI 23.3-40.8) 97.7% (95% CI 95.3-98.9)
               
Romed Holland, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Schnelltest Kassette
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 900 73.3% (95% CI 67.9-78.2) 99.8% (95% CI 98.9-100)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 80 72.5% (95% CI 55.9-84.9) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100) 
               
Salofa, Salocor SARS-CoV-2 Antigen
Ahava, M.J., et al. high concern yes frozen serum 148 96.2% (95% CI 80.4-99.9) 98.0% (95% CI 94.2-99.6)
               
SD Biosensor, Standard F
Porte, L., et al. high concern no banked NP/OP 64 90.6% (95% CI 75.8-96.8) 96.9% (95% CI 84.3-99.4)
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 60 86.7% (95% CI 75.8-93.1) not provided
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 453 77.5% (95% CI 69.2-84.1) 97.9% (95% CI 95.7-99.0)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh ONP 676 69.2% (95% CI 53.6-81.4) 96.9% (95% CI 95.2-98)
Pérez‐García, F., et al. unclear yes unclear NP 356 66.5% (95% CI 58.8-73.5) 97.3% (95% CI 93.8-99.1)
Drevinek, P., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 591 62.3% (95% CI 55.8-68.4) 99.5% (95% CI 98.0-99.9)
Osterman, A., et al. high concern yes unclear NP/OP 360 60.9% (95% CI 53.7-67.5) 97.8% (95% CI 95.7-98.9)
Kahn, M., et al. unclear yes unclear OP 3110 59.4% (not provided) 99.0% (not provided)
Liotti, F.M., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 359 47.1% (95% CI 37.1-57.1) 98.4% (95% CI 96.0-99.6)
Baccani, I., et al. unclear no unclear NP 93 35.7% (95% CI 20.1-54.2) 100% (95% CI 96.2-100)
               
SD Biosensor / Roche, Standard Q (NP sampling)
Chaimayo, C., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP 454 98.3% (95% CI 91.1-100) 98.7% (95% CI 97.1-99.6)
Bruzzone, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked unclear 16 93.8% (95% CI 71.7-98.9) not provided
Kerneis, S., et al. low concern no fresh NP 1109 94% (95% CI 86.0-98.0) 99% (95% CI 98.0-99.0)
Schwob, J.M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 333 92.9% (95% CI 86.4-96.9) 100% (95% CI 98.3*-100*)
Nikolai, O., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 96 91.2% (95% CI 77.0-97.0) 100% (95% CI 94.2-100)
Kim, W., W., et al high concern no banked NP 165 89.2% (95% CI 79.1-95.6) 96.0% (95% CI 90.1-98.9)
Berger, A., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 529 89.0% (95% CI 83.7-93.1) 99.7% (95% CI 98.4-100)
FINDdx low concern yes fresh NP 400 88.7% (95% CI 81.3-93.4) 97.6% (95% CI 95.2-98.8)
Schildgen, V., et al. high concern yes unclear BAL/TW 73 88.1% (95% CI 74.4*-96.0*) 19.4% (95% CI 7.5*-37.5*)
Lindner, A.K., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 139 85.0% (955 CI 70.9-92.9) 99.1% (95% CI 94.8-99.5)
Iglὁi, Z., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 970 84.9% (95% CI 79.1-89.4) 99.5% (95% CI 98.7-99.8)
Van Honacker, E., et al. high concern yes banked NP 98 82.8% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Gupta, A., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 330 81.8% (95% CI 71.3-89.6) 99.6% (95% CI 97.8-99.9)
Jääskeläinen, A.E., et al. high concern yes banked NP 198 81.0% (95% CI 74.2-86.4) 100% (not provided)
Thell, R., et al. unclear no fresh unclear 591 80.3% (95% CI 74.3-85.4) 99.1% (95% CI 97.4-99.8)
Turcato, G., et al. unclear unclear fresh NP 3410 80.3% (95% CI 74.9-85.4) 99.1% (95% CI 98.6-99.3)
Lindner, A.K., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 289 79.5% (95% CI 64.5-89.2) 99.6% (95% CI 97.8-100)
Yin, N., et al. low concern no banked NP 65 78.3% (95% CI 58.1-90.3) not provided
Amer, R. M., et al intermediate concern yes banked NP/OP 83 78.2% (95% CI 67.0-86.0) 64.2% (95% CI 38.0-83.0)
Krüger, L.J., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear NP/OP 1263 76.6% (95% CI 62.8-86.4) 99.3% (95% CI 98.6-99.6)
Möckel, M., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 271 75.3% (95% CI 65.8-83.4) 100% (95% CI 98.4-100)
Lindner, A.K., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh AN 289 74.4% (95% CI 58.9-85.4) 99.2% (95% CI 97.1-99.8)
Caramello, V., et al. low concern yes unclear NP 175 74.3% (not provided) 98.4% (not provided)
Lindner, A.K., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 180 73.0% (95% CI 58.1-84.3) 99.3% (95% CI 96.0-100)
Salvagno, G.L., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear NP 321 72.5% (95% CI 64.6-79.5) 99.4% (95% CI 96.8-100)
Cerutti, F., et al. unclear yes unclear NP 185 72.1% (95% CI 62.5*-80.5*) 100% (95% CI 95.6*-100*)
Möckel, M., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 2020 72.0% (95% CI 53.3-86.7) 99.4% (95% CI 97.3-99.9)
Fernandez-Montero, A., et al. low concern no fresh NP 2543 71.4% (95% CI 56.74-83.4) 99.7% (95% CI 99.4-99.9)
Krüttgen, A., et al. high concern yes banked NP 150 70.7% (95% CI 59.0*-80.6*) 96.0% (95% CI 88.9*-99.2*)
Nalumansi, A., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 262 70.0% (95% CI 60.0-79.0) 92.0% (95% CI 87.0-96.0)
Pena, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 842 69.8% (95% CI 58.5-79.2) 99.6% (95% CI 98.86-99.87)
Favresse, J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 188 69.8% (95% CI 59.6-78.8) 100% (95% CI 96.1-100)
Holzner, C., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 2375 68.9% (95% CI 67.0-70.7) 99.6% (95% CI 99.3-99.8)
Jegerlehner, S., et al. low concern yes banked NP 1465 65.3% (95% CI 56.8-73.1) 99.9% (95% CI 99.5-100)
Osterman, A., et al. high concern yes unclear NP/OP 386 64.5% (95% CI 58.4-70.1) 97.7% (95% CI 95.6-98.8)
Abdul-Mumin, A., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 193 64.0% (95% CI 49.0-79.0) 81.0% (95% CI 75.0-87.0)
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 139 61.9% (95% CI 45.6-76.4) 99% (95% CI 94.4-100)
Schuit, E., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 1596 62.9% (95% CI 54.0-71.1) 99.5% (95% CI 98.9-99.8)
Koeleman, J. G. M., et al. high concern yes banked NP 80 62.5% (95% CI 45.8-76.8) 87.5% (95% CI 72.4-95.3)
Wertenauer, C., et al low concern yes fresh NP 2215 60.4% (not provided) 99.7% (not provided)
Ristic, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 120 58.1% (95% CI 42.1-73.0) 100% (not provided)
Kannian, P., et al. high concern yes unclear saliva 37 56.0% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Van Honacker, E., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear NP 4195 54.2% (not provided) 99.7% (not provided)
Olearo, F., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear OP 184 49.4% (95% CI 38.9-59.9) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Baro, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 43.6% (95% CI 33.7-53.8) 96.2% (95% CI 92.4-98.5)
Kohmer, N., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 100 43.2% (95% CI 37.8-55.3) 100% (95% CI 86.8-100)
Caruana, G., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 532 41.2% (not provided) 99.7%  (not provided)
Cerutti, F., et al. unclear yes fresh NP 145 40.0% (95% CI 5.3*-85.3*) 100% (95% CI 97.4*-100*)
Dankova, Z., et al.  low concern yes fresh NP 1227 37.8% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Lee, J., et al. high concern yes banked NP 680  28.7% (95% CI 24.2-33.5) 100% (95% CI 98.8-100)
Caruana, G., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 116 28.6% (not provided) 98.2%
Osterman, A., et al high concern yes banked NP/OP/URT 410 23.6% (95% CI 16.5-32.5) 100% (95% CI 98.8-100)
Kumar, K. K., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP + throat 204 16.7% (not provided) 100% (not provided)
Šterbenc, A., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 36 not provided 100% (95% CI not provided) 
               
SD Biosensor / Roche, Standard Q (nasal sampling)
Nikolai, O., et al. low concern yes fresh MT 96 91.2% (95% CI 77.0-97.0) 100% (95% CI 94.2-100)
Agarwal, J., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 467 89.7% (95% CI 72.6-97.8) 99.5% (not provided)
Nikolai, O., et al. low concern yes fresh MT 132 86.1% (95% CI 71.3-93.9) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
Nikolai, O., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 132 86.1% (95% CI 71.3-93.9) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
Linder, A.K., et al. low concern yes fresh MT 180 80.5% (95% CI 66-89.8) 98.6% (95% CI 94.9-99.6)
Stohr, J.J.J.M., et al. low concern yes fresh AN 1611 61.5% (95% CI 54.4-68.1) 99.7% (95% CI 99.3-99.9)
               
Spring Healthcare, SARS-Cov-2 Antigen Rapid Test (Swab)
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 200 77.0% (95% CI 67.9-84.2) 98.0% (95% CI 93.0-99.6)
               
Shenzen Bioeasy Biotechnology, 2019-nCov Antigen Rapid Test Kit
Porte, L., et al. high concern yes banked NP/OP 127 93.9% (95% CI 86.5-97.4) 100% (95% CI 92.1*-100*)
Weitzel, T., et al. high concern no banked NP/OP 111 85.0% (95% CI 75.6-91.2) 100% (95% CI 89.0-100)
Parada-Ricart, E., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP 172 73.1%* (95% CI 52.2*-88.4*) 85.6%* (95% CI 78.9*-90.9*)
Krüger, L.J., et al. intermediate concern yes fresh NP/OP 727 66.7% (95% CI 41.7-84.8) 93.1% (95% CI 91-94.8)
               
Siemens Healthineers, CLINITEST® Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Test
Merino-Amador, P., et al. low concern no fresh NP 450 93.3% (95% CI 89.7-96.8) 99.2% (95% CI 97.2-99.8)
Torres, I. et al. low concern yes fresh NP 178 80.2% (95% CI 70.9-87.1) 100% (95% CI 95.8-100)
Torres, I. et al. low concern yes fresh NP 92 60.0% (95% CI 40.7-76.6) 100% (95% CI 94.6-100)
Olearo, F., et al. intermediate concern yes unclear OP 170 54.9% (95% CI 43.4-65.9) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Baro, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 51.5% (95% CI 41.3-61.6) 98.4% (95% CI 95.3-99.6)
               
SIENNA, COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test
Bouassa, M.R.S., et al. high concern no banked NP 100 90% (95% CI 84.1-95.9) 100% (95% CI 99.9-100)
               
Stark, Portable Cov-2 Antigen Lab            
Di Domenico, M., et al.  low concern yes fresh saliva 433 100% (95% CI 90.3-100) 96.2% (95% CI 93.8-97.9)
               
Sugentech, SGTi-flex COVID-19 Ag
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 106 78.6% (95% CI 49.2-95.3)
compared to viral culture
66.3% (95% CI 55.7-75.8)
compared to viral culture
Shidlovskaya, E., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 106 52.6% (95% CI 40.9-64.0) 96.4% (95% CI 81.7-99.9)
               
SureScreen, COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Visual Read
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 23 73.9%* (not provided) not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 200 65.0% (95% CI 55.3-73.6) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 23 65.2%* (not provided)
based on B.1.1.7 variant
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 23 60.8%* (not provided) not provided
Baro, B., et al. intermediate concern yes banked NP 286 28.8% (95% CI 20.2-38.6) 97.8% (95% CI 94.5-99.4)
               
SureScreen, COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Flourescent
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 57 94.7% (95% CI 85.6-98.6)
compared to viral culture
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 200 69.0% (95% CI 59.4-77.2) 98.0% (95% CI 93.0-99.6)
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 141 60.3% (95% CI 52.0-68.0) not provided
               
V-Chek, SARS-COV-2 RAPID AG TEST (IFA)            
Kipritci, Z., et al.  unclear unclear unclear NP 110 61.8% (95% CI 45.4-78.1) 100% (not provided)
               
VivaCheck, VivaDiag™ SARS-CoV-2 Ag Rapid Test            
Homza, M., et al. low concern yes fresh NP 268 41.8% (95% CI 31.5-52.6) 96.0% (95% CI 92.0-98.4)
               
Zhuhai Encode Medical Engineering, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 34 100% (95% CI 89.9-100)
compared to viral culture
not provided
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 200 74.0% (95% CI 64.6-81.6) 100% (95% CI 96.3-100)
Pickering, S., et al. high concern no banked AN/OP 90 74.4% (95% CI 64.6-82.3) not provided

* Values differ from those provided in the respective manuscript due to missing or contradictory data.

Abbreviations: NP = nasopharyngeal; OP = oropharyngeal; AN = anterior nasal; MT = mid turbine; LRT = lower respiratory tract; CI = confidence interval

Follow this link to get to the methods and sources section.

Furthermore, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute has published a list of Ag-RDTs that they consider to perform to the state of the art. A similar list has also been published by the Swiss Federal Institute for Public Health.

In addition to the evaluation of Ag-RDTs, we would also like to call attention to further research relevant to this topic.

Correlation of antigen and RNA concentrations:

Teststrategies:

Evaluation of the Abbott, Panbio in a low prevalence setting for monitoring:

Economic modelling: