As a result of the Swedish project "CLIRE - Climate friendly health and care", four steps for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the healthcare sector could be formulated. These are shown in the following figure.
In the KliOL project, we will follow these steps and implement them in two phases.
Phase 1: Creation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator.
In order to be able to determine the greenhouse gas emissions in detail for Heidelberg University Hospital, in particular for the upstream and downstream processes of supply chains, a specially adapted greenhouse gas calculator is being created by 'ifeu' in this phase.
A distinction is made here between three emission sources, which are referred to as Scope (= emission category) 1, 2 and 3 in accordance with the established guideline ('Greenhouse Gas Protocol'). Scope 1 includes direct GHG emissions from sources owned or controlled by the company, e.g. GHG emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in own boilers or vehicles. Scope 2 includes indirect GHG emissions from purchased electricity, steam, heating and cooling consumed by the company. Scope 3 includes all other indirect GHG emissions from upstream and downstream processes that result from a company's activities and are not included in Scope 2. These Scope 3 emissions arise, for example, from the production or disposal of goods (medical devices, consumables, pharmaceuticals) or from the mobility behavior of employees, patients and visitors.
To our knowledge, there is currently no possibility for German hospitals to record GHG emissions, including Scope 3 emissions, systematically and with reasonable effort using a GHG calculator. Consequently, such a calculator is to be created in the KliOL project. To achieve this, we are working closely with important stakeholders at Heidelberg University Hospital.
Phase 2: Implementation and evaluation of climate protection measures
In the second project phase, which will begin in summer 2022, promising climate protection measures will be selected on the basis of the results of the GHG calculator from phase 1 and then implemented together with stakeholders at Heidelberg University Hospital. The climate protection measures will be evaluated in terms of their actual greenhouse gas reduction, their possible additional health benefits and their economic effects.