Kliniken &… Institute Abteilung… Abteilung… Forschung Publikationen

Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung

* Die fett hervorgehobenen Autoren sind Mitarbeiter der Abteilung Allgemeinmedizin und Versorgungsforschung.


Litke NA, Poß-Doering R, Fehrer V, Köppen M, Kümmel S, Szecsenyi J, Wensing M. Building climate resilience: awareness of climate change adaptation in German outpatient medical practices. BMC Health Serv Res. 2024 Feb 9;24(1):184. doi: 10.1186/s12913-024-10664-2. 
→ Links: PMID: 38336703; PMCID: PMC10858569; BMC.


Klafke N, Bossert J, Kröger B, Neuberger P, Heyder U, Layer M, Winkler M, Idler C, Kaschdailewitsch E, Heine R, John H, Zielke T, Schmeling B, Joy S, Mertens I, Babadag-Savas B, Kohler S, Mahler C, Witt CM, Steinmann D, Voiss P, Stolz R. Prevention and Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) with Non-Pharmacological Interventions: Clinical Recommendations from a Systematic Scoping Review and an Expert Consensus Process. Med. Sci. 2023; 11(1):15. doi: 10.3390/medsci11010015.
→ Links: MDPI.


Bombana M, Wensing M, Wittenborn L, Ullrich C. Health Education about Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors in Gynecological and Obstetric Care: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Providers' Views in Germany. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Sep 16;19(18):11674. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191811674.
→ Links: PMID: 36141943; MDPI; pdf-Dokument.

Mächler R, Sturm N, Frick E, Schalhorn F, Stolz R, Valentini J, Krisam J, Straßner C. Evaluation of a Spiritual History with Elderly Multi-Morbid Patients in General Practice-A Mixed-Methods Study within the Project HoPES3. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 4;19(1):538. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010538. 
→ Links: PMID: 35010797; PMCID: PMC8744880; pdf-Dokument.

Rohleder S, Costa DD, Bozorgmehr PK. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, non-national residency, and Covid-19 incidence: A longitudinal spatiotemporal analysis in Germany. EClinicalMedicine. 2022 Jul;49:101485. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101485. Epub 2022 Jun 13.
→ Links: PMID: 35719293; PMCID: PMC9189383; Lancet; pdf-Dokument.


Mohsenpour A, Bozorgmehr K, Rohleder S, Stratil J, Costa D. SARS-Cov-2 prevalence, transmission, health-related outcomes and control strategies in homeless shelters: Systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Aug;38:101032. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101032. Epub 2021 Jul 23. 
→ Links: PMID: 34316550; PMCID: PMC8298932; ScienceDirect.

Perplies C, Biddle L, Benson-Martin J, Joggerst B, Bozorgmehr K. Förderung der psychischen Gesundheit von geflüchteten Menschen. Erkenntnisse aus der Implementierung eines gruppenbasierten Peer-Ansatzes im kommunalen Setting. [Promoting mental health among refugees. Findings from the implementation of a group-based peer approach in a community setting]. Präv Gesundheitsf 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s11553-021-00899-w. Epub ahead of print.
→ Links: Spriger Medizin; pdf-Dokument.

Rohleder S, Bozorgmehr K. Monitoring the spatiotemporal epidemiology of Covid-19 incidence and mortality: A small-area analysis in Germany. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2021 Aug;38:100433. doi: 10.1016/j.sste.2021.100433. Epub 2021 May 21. 
→ Links: PMID: 34353525; PMCID: PMC8139365; ScienceDirect.

Rohleder S, Stock C, Bozorgmehr K. Socioeconomic deprivation is inversely associated with measles incidence: a longitudinal small-area analysis, Germany, 2001 to 2017. Euro Surveill. 2021 Apr;26(17):1900755. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.17.1900755. 
→ Links: PMID: 33928902; PMCID: PMC8086244; Eurosurveillance.

Steinmann D, Babadağ Savaş B, Felber S, Joy S, Mertens I, Cramer H, Paul A, Layer M, Klafke N, Stolz R, Heyder U, Neuberger P, Winkler M, Idler C, Heine R, Kaschdailewitsch E, John H, Schmeling B, Zielke T, Horneber M, Witt CM, Voiss P. Nursing Procedures for the Prevention and Treatment of Mucositis Induced by Cancer Therapies: Clinical Practice Guideline Based on an Interdisciplinary Consensus Process and a Systematic Literature Search. Integr Cancer Ther. 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1534735420940412. doi: 10.1177/1534735420940412.
→ Links: PMID: 33467951; PMCID: PMC7960907; pdf-Dokument.


Bugaj TJ, Krug K, Rentschler A, Nikendei C, Szecsenyi J, Schwill S. Mental health of postgraduate trainees in primary care: a cross-sectional study. BMC Fam Pract. 2020;21(1):123. doi:10.1186/s12875-020-01199-6. (Link)

Costa D, Biddle L, Mühling C, Bozorgmehr K. Subjective social status mobility and mental health of asylum seekers and refugees: Population-based, cross-sectional study in a German federal state. J Migr Health 2020;1-2: 100020. doi: 10.1016/j.jmh.2020.100020.
→ Links: ScienceDirect; pdf-Dokument.

Müller G, Lyssenko L, Giurgiu M, Pfinder M, Clement M, Kaiserauer A, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Kohlmann T, BöS K. How effective and efficient are different exercise patterns in reducing back pain? Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2020 Jun 4. doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.20.05975-4. Epub ahead of print. (PMID: 32498492).

Wahedi K, Biddle L, Jahn R, Ziegler S, Kratochwill S, Pruskil S, Noest S, Bozorgmehr K. Medizinische Versorgung von Asylsuchenden in Erstaufnahmeeinrichtungen : Eine qualitative Bestandsaufnahme aus Versorgungsperspektive [Healthcare provision for asylum seekers in reception centres : Qualitative survey from the perspective of healthcare providers]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2020 Dec;63(12):1460-1469. German. doi: 10.1007/s00103-020-03243-3. Epub 2020 Nov 12.
→ Links: PMID: 33180158; PMCID: PMC7686202; pdf-Dokument.

Wittek M, Pfinder M. Lebensstilbedingte Risiken in der Schwangerschaft und deren prä- und postnatale Folgen. Gyn Praktische Gynäkologie; (25)2020; C 42058; S. 185-190 (pdf-Dokument)



Arnold C, Ullrich C, Wensing M, Pfinder M. Prenatal alcohol exposure and the associated risk of elevated blood pressure: A cross-sectional analysis of 3 to 17-year- olds in Germany.
Am J Hypertens 2019 - doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpz107 (Link)



Bozorgmehr K, Samuilova M, Petrova-Benedict R, Girardi E, Piselli P, Kentikelenis A. Infectious disease health services for refugees and asylum seekers during a time of crisis:  a scoping study of six European Union countries. Health Policy 2018; 1-6 - 10.1016/j.healthpol.2018.04.003 (Link)

Razum O, Bozorgmehr K. Public Health in Germany: a new “Golden Age”?. Public Health Forum 2018; 26: 189-191 -  doi:10.1515/pubhef-2018-0064

Wahedi K, Flores W, Beiersmann C, Bozorgmehr K, Jahn A. Using information communication technology to identify deficits in rural health care: a mixed-methods evaluation from Guatemala. Glob Health Action 2018; 11: 1, 1455347 - doi: 10.1080/16549716.2018.1455347 (Link)



Bozorgmehr K, Razum O, Maier W, Szecsenyi J, Stock C. Regional deprivation is associated with the distribution of vulnerable asylum-seekers: a nation-wide small-area analysis in Germany. J Epidemiol Community Health 2017; - doi: 10.1136/jech-2016-208506 (Abstract)

Bozorgmehr K, Wahedi K, Noest S, Szecsenyi J, Razum O. . Infectious disease screening in asylum-seekers: range, coverage and economic evaluation in Germany, 2015. Euro Surveill 2017; 22(40): pii=16-00677 - doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.40.16-00677 (PDF-Dokument)

Gustafsson PE, Bozorgmehr K, Hammarström A, Sebastian MS. What role does adolescent neighborhood play for adult health? A cross-classified multilevel analysis of life course models in Northern Sweden. Health Place. 2017; 46: 137-144 - doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.04.013 (Link)

Keurhorst M, Anderson P, Heinen M, Bendtsen P, Baena B, Brzózka K, Colom J, Deluca P, Drummond C, Kaner E, Kłoda K, Mierzecki A, Newbury-Birch D, Okulicz-Kozaryn K, Palacio-Vieira J, Parkinson K, Reynolds J, Ronda G, Segura L, Słodownik L, Spak F, van Steenkiste B, Wallace P, Wolstenholme A, Wojnar M, Gual A, Laurant M, Wensing M. Impact of primary healthcare providers' initial rolesecurity and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions inmanaging risky alcohol consumption: a cluster randomised factorial trial. Implement Sci. 2016;11: 96 - doi: 10.1186/s13012-016-0468-5 (PDF-Dokument)

Lichtl C, Lutz T, Szecsenyi J, Bozorgmehr K. Differences in the prevalence of hospitalizations and utilization of emergency outpatient services for ambulatory care sensitive conditions between asylum-seeking children and children of the general population: a cross-sectional medical records study (2015). BMC Health Serv Res 2017; 15: 17: 731 - doi: 10.1186/s12913-017-2672-7 (Link)

Pfinder M, Dreger S, Christianson L, Lhachimi S, Zeeb H. Response to Dr Baverstock's letter to the Editor. J Radiol Prot 2017; 37: 953-954 - doi: 10.1088/1361-6498/aa870e (Link)

Razum O, Breckenkamp J, David M, Borde T, Bozorgmehr K. Early antenatal care visit as indicator for health equity monitoring [Letter]. Lancet Glob Health 2017; 6: e35 - doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30465-5

Schönbach J-K, Pfinder M, Börnhorst C, Zeeb H, Brand T. Changes in Sports Participation across Transition to Retirement: Modifications by Migration Background and Acculturation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017, 14: E1356 - doi: 10.3390/ijerph14111356 (Abstract)



Bozorgmehr K, Mohsenpour M, Saure D, Stock C, Loerbroks A, Joos S, Schneider C. Systematische Übersicht und „Mapping“ empirischer Studien des Gesundheitszustands und der medizinischen Versorgung von Flüchtlingen und Asylsuchenden in Deutschland (1990-2014). Bundesgesundheitsbl 2016 - doi 10.1007/s00103-016-2336-5 (PDF-Dokument)

Bozorgmehr K, Noest S, Thaiss HM, Razum O. Die gesundheitliche Versorgungssituation von Asylsuchenden: bundesweite Bestandsaufnahme über die Gesundheitsämter. Bundesgesundheitsbl 2016 - doi 10.1007/s00103-016-2329-4 (Link)

Bozorgmehr K, Razum O. Asylum-seekers in Germany: untenable arguments for restricting health care Access [Letter]. Lancet 2016 (in press)

Bozorgmehr K, Razum O, Saure D, Joggerst B, Szecsenyi J, Stock C. Yield of active screening for tuberculosis among asylum-seekers in Germany: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Euro Surveill, 2016 (in press)

Bozorgmehr K, Szecsenyi J, Stock C, Razum O. Europe’s response to the refugee crisis: why relocation quotas will fail to achieve ‘fairness’ from a health perspective. Eur J Public Health 2016; 26: 5-6

Keurhorst M, Anderson P, Heinen M, Bendtsen P, Baena B, Brzózka K, Colom J, Deluca P, Drummond C, Kaner E, Kłoda K, Mierzecki A, Newbury-Birch D,Okulicz-Kozaryn K, Palacio-Vieira J, Parkinson K, Reynolds J, Ronda G, Segura L, Słodownik L, Spak F, van Steenkiste B, Wallace P, Wolstenholme A, Wojnar M, Gual A, Laurant M, Wensing M. Impact of primary healthcare providers' initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions in managing risky alcohol consumption: a cluster randomised factorial trial. Implement Sci. 2016;11: 96 - doi: 10.1186/s13012-016-0468-5 (PDF-Dokument)

Lange B, Stete K, Bozorgmehr K, Camp J, Kranzer K, Kern W, Rieg S. Gesundheitsversorgung geflüchteter Menschen. Eine kurze Übersicht mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Infektionserkrankungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2016; 141: 772-776 - doi: 10.1055/s-0042-107178 (Abstract)

Laux G, Berger S, Szecsenyi J, Kaufmann-Kolle P, Leutgeb R. Prescribing differences in family practice for diabetic patients in Germany according to statutory or private health insurance: the case of DPP-4-inhibitors and GLP-1-agonists. BMC Family Practice 2016 (in press)

Nöst S, Bozorgmehr K. Gesundheitliche Versorgung von Asylsuchenden. Impulse für Gesundheitsförderung 2016; 92: 20-21

Razum O, Bozorgmehr K. Restricted entitlements and access to health care for refugees and immigrants: The example of Germany. Glob Soc Policy 2016, 1–4, DOI: 10.1177/1468018116655267 (PDF-Dokument)

Razum O, Wenner J, Bozorgmehr K. Wenn Zufall über den Zugang zur Gesundheitsversorgung bestimmt: Geflüchtete in Deutschland. Gesundheitswesen 2016, Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print] - doi: 10.1055/s-0042-116231 (Abstract)

Valentini J, Ruppert D, Magez J, Stegbauer C, Bramesfeld A, Goetz K. Integrated care in German mental health services as benefit for relatives - a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16: 48 - doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0760-6 (PDF-Dokument)

Vassilev I, Rogers A, Kennedy A, Wensing M, Koetsenruijter J, Orlando R, Portillo MC, Culliford D. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries. PLoS One2016; 11: e0161027 - doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161027 (PDF-Dokument)

Wahedi K, Noest S, Bozorgmehr K. Die Gesundheitsuntersuchung von Asylsuchenden nach §62 Asylverfahrensgesetz: Eine bundesweite Analyse der Regelungen in Deutschland. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 2016: 1-10 - doi: 10.1007/s00103-016-2489-2 (PDF-Dokument)



Bozorgmehr K, Razum O. Effect of restricting access to health care on health expenditures among asylum-seekers and refugees. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0131483 - doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131483 (PDF-Dokument)

Bozorgmehr K, Razum O. EU's external borders: what role for global health law? (letter). Lancet 2015; 385 May 30 (PDF-Dokument

Gardemann J., Bozorgmehr K, Razum O. Unfallverhütung bei Flüchtlingen.  Gesundheitswesen 2015; 77: 735 - doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564197

Jahn A, Bozorgmehr K, Müller O. Reforming public and global health in Germany [letter]. Lancet 2015; 386 (9996): 851–852

Jahn RH, Müller O, Bozorgmehr K, . Characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer policies at universities and public institutions in medical research - protocol for a systematic review of the qualitative research literature. Syst Rev 2015; 4: 110 - doi:10.1186/s13643-015-0094-3 (PDF-Dokument)

Razum O, Bozorgmehr K. Disgrace at EU's external borders (Editorial). Int J Public Health 2015 - doi: 10.1007/s00038-015-0689-4

Razum O, Bozorgmehr K, Wenner J, Weishaar H. The ballad of financial dependency: sponsoring in public health professional societies. Eur J Public Health, first published online: 31 March 2015  - doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckv056

Schneider C, Joos S, Bozorgmehr K. Disparities in health and access to health care between asylum seekers and residents in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional feasibility study. BMJ Open 2015; 5: e008784 - doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008784 (PDF-Dokument)



Bozorgmehr K, Bruchhausen W, Hein W, Knipper M, Korte R, Razum O, Tinnemann P. The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses and opportunities. [Debate] Glob Health Action 2014; 7: 23445 - doi: 10.3402/gha.v7.23445

Bozorgmehr K, Bruchhausen W, Hein W, Knipper M, Korte R, Tinnemann P, Razum O. Germany and global health: an unfinished agenda? [Letter] Lancet 2013; 382: 1072-1073 (Link)

Bozorgmehr K, Gabrysch S, Müller O, Neuhann F, Jordan I, Razum O. Relationship between financial speculation and food prices and price volatility: applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to current debates in Germany. Global Health 2013; 9: 44 (PDF-Dokument)

Goetz K, Loew T, Hornung R, Cojocaru L, Lahmann C, Tritt K. Primary prevention programme for burnout-endangered teachers – follow-up effectiveness of a combined group and individual intervention of AFA® Breathing Therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 doi: 10.1155/2013/798260

Goetz KMusselmann BSzecsenyi JJoos S. The influence of workload and health behaviour on job satisfaction of general practitioners. Fam Med 2013; 45: 95-101 (Abstract)

Ludt S; Campbell SM; Petek, D; Rochon, J; Szecsenyi J; van Lieshout J; Wensing M; Ose D. Which practice characteristics are associated with the quality of cardiovascular disease prevention in European primary care? Implement Sci 2013; 8: 27 doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-27 (PDF-Dokument)

Prüfer F, Joos S, Miksch A. What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; doi:10.1155/2013/187641



Goetz KSzecsenyi JCampbell S, Rosemann T, Rueter G, Raum E, Brenner H, Miksch A. The importance of social support for people with type 2 diabetes - a qualitative study with general practitioners, practice nurses and patients. GMS Psychosoc Med. 2012; 9 doi 10.3205/psm000080 (PDF-Dokument)

Ludt SWensing MCampbell SMOse D, van Lieshout J, Rochon J, Uhlmann L, Szecsenyi J. The challenge of cardiovascular prevention in primary care: implications of a European observational study in 8928 patients at different risk levels. Eur J Prev Cardiolog. Epub 2012 Sep 21 [Epub ahead of print] (Abstract)

Miksch AHermann KJoos SKiolbassa KLoh AGötz K. „Work-Life-Balance“ im Arztberuf – geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede in den Erwartungen von Medizinstudierenden. Ergebnisse einer Online-Umfrage in Baden-Württemberg. Präv Gesundheitsf 2012; 7: 49–55 doi 10.1007/s11553-011-0314-1

Müller-Bühl ULeutgeb RBungartz JSzecsenyi JLaux G. Expenditure of chronic venous leg ulcer management in German primary care: results from a population-based study. Int Wound J. 2012 Feb 28. doi 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2012.00942.x. [Epub ahead of print] (Abstract)

Müller-Bühl ULeutgeb REngeser PSzecsenyi JLaux G. Prävalenz, lokale Komplikationen und Risikofaktoren der Beinvarikose in deutschen Hausarztpraxen. Phlebologie 2012; 41: 89-93 (Abstract)

Ose DFreund TLudt S. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: creating a healthy environment [Editorial]. J Public Health 2012; 20: 1–3 doi 10.1007/s10389-011-0463-x (Abstract)

Ose DFreund TLudt S. Patienteninformation im Krankenhaus: neue Anforderungen und alte Strukturen? Bedeutung und Verfügbarkeit schriftlicher Patienteninformationen aus Sicht von Krankenhausmitarbeitern. Präv Gesundheitsf 2012; 7: 95–99 doi 10.1007/s11553-012-0330-9

 Ose DFreund TUrban E, Kunz CU, Szecsenyi J, Miksch A. Comorbidity and patient-reported quality of care: an evaluation of the primary care based German disease management program for type 2 diabetes. J Public Health 2012;  DOI: 10.1007/s10389-011-0429-z (Abstract



Goetz K, Beutel S, Mueller G, Trierweiler-Hauke B, Mahler C. Work-related behaviour and experience patterns of nurses. Int Nurs Rev 2011; doi 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2011.00921.x 



Freund T, Lekutat C, Schwantes U, Szecsenyi J, Joos S. Gesundheitsuntersuchung und Impfstatus - Ergebnisse einer Patientenbefragung in deutschen Arztpraxen. Gesundheitswesen 2010 [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1242786 (Abstract)

Peters-Klimm FCampbell SHermann K, Kunz C, Muller-Tasch T, Szecsenyi J (on Behalf of the Competence Network Heart Failure). Case management for patients with chronic systolic heart failure in primary care: The HICMan exploratory randomised controlled trial. Trials 2010; 11: 56 (Link)

Peters-Klimm F, Kunz CU, Laux GSzecsenyi J, Mueller-Tasch T. Patient- and provider-related determinants of generic and specific health-related quality of life of patients with chronic systolic heart failure in primary care: a cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010; 8: 98 doi:10.1186/1477-7525-8-98 (Link)

Urban E, Glassen K, Miksch A. Diabetes vermeiden. Prävention, Screening und Patientenselbstmanagement. Diabetes aktuell 2010; 8: 307-311



Bölter RNatanzon IMiksch AJoos S, Rosemann TSzecsenyi J, Götz K. Kommunale Ressourcen als ein Element des "Chronic Care Modells". eine qualitative Studie mit Hausärzten. Präv Gesundheitsf 2009; 4: 1-5 (Abstract

Peters-Klimm FCampbell S, Muller-Tasch T, Schellberg D, Gelbrich G, Herzog W, Szecsenyi J. Primary care-based multifaceted, interdisciplinary medical educational intervention for patients with systolic heart failure: lessons learned from a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials 2009; 10: 68 (Link)



Hermann KSzecsenyi JLudt S. Vergleichende Evaluation zweier Instrumente zur
kardiovaskulären Risikoberatung in der Hausarztpraxis: CARRISMA und e-ARRIBA. Auswirkung auf Veränderungsmotivation & Partizipative Entscheidungsfindung. Z Allg Med 2008; 84: 207-213  (Abstract)

Ose D, Grande G, Badura B, Greiner W. Patienteninformation zur Bewertung von Gesundheitseinrichtungen. Möglichkeiten und Perspektiven zur Entwicklung eines patientenorientierten Informationsportals vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Initiativen zur Qualitätssicherung im Gesundheitssystem. Präv Gesundheitsf 2008; 3: 152-162 (Abstract)



Ludt S, Campbell S, Boffin N, Miksch AWensing MSzecsenyi J. Prävention und Risikomanagement Kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen in der europäischen Primärversorgung - EPA Cardio. Z Allg Med 2006; 82: 3 (PDF-Dokument



Klimm HD , Jacob S, Klimm S, Peters F. Gesundheitsvorsorge und Diabetes-Früherkennung „Gesund krank” oder „krank gesund” Untersuchung zur Gesundheitsvorsorge und Diabetes-Früherkennung. Z Allg Med 2004; 80: 229-232 

Wiesemann A, Ludt S, Szecsenyi J, Scheuermann W, Scheidt R. Cardiovascular risk factors and motivation for a healthy life-style in a German community - results of the GP-based Oestringen study. Pat Educ Counselling 2004; 55: 40-47 (PDF-Dokument



Peters F , Martina B. Präoperative Risikobeurteilung und Management in der Praxis. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 2003; 92: 1629-1633